Promoting access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all persons affected by crisis

The Effects of Armed Conflict on Educational Attainment and Inequality

Education for Peacebuilding
Resource Type
Journal Article
Carina Omoeva, Rachel Hatch, and Wael Moussa
FHI 360 Education Policy and Data Center
Publish Date


Filename File Size
07_Omoeva_Hatch_and_Moussa_(2016)_-_The_Effects_of_Armed_Conflict_on_Educat... 1 MB Download


This resource is part of a collection of resources compiled by UNICEF’s 2012-2016 Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA), known as “Learning for Peace”, which was funded by the Government of the Netherlands.

The study uses the variation in the timing of conflict between countries using a difference-indifferences matching strategy to identify the impacts of armed
conflict on years of schooling and educational inequality.

• Education, wealth, and conflict data were collected from 200+ databases for nearly 100 countries and over a 50 year timespan (1960-2010).
• Results provide evidence that:

– Armed conflict exacerbates pre-existing inequalities between wealth and gender groups, as well as overall inequality at the national level.
– Conflict effects are more pronounced when ethnic in nature, particularly among those that last at least six years, and worsens over time. For instance, ethnic conflict lowers gender parity for education attainment by 7.6 per cent, lowering girls’ mean years of schooling from 4.8 to 4.4.
– Effects of conflict on inequality are more pronounced in fragile countries.