Promoting access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all persons affected by crisis

Learning for Peace Collection

 

From 2012-2016, UNICEF and the Government of the Netherlands undertook a multi-year partnership entitled Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA), also known as Learning for Peace. The objective of this program was to test how education can be leveraged to contribute to the mitigation of drivers of conflict in fragile and post-conflict countries. Unlike other UNICEF education in emergency programs, peacebuilding was seen as the primary objective of Learning for Peace, with the goal of strengthening – through the education system and the provision of social services – resilience, social cohesion, and human security in conflict-affected contexts. Find out more about this program, and this topic in general, on the Education for Peacebuilding thematic webpage.

During the project period, Learning for Peace produced dozens of briefs, reports, case studies, guides, and research products, and compiled many other relevant resources related to the link between education and peacebuilding. In cooperation with UNICEF, the full collection of these resources is available below, organized in thematic categories.
 

Access the Learning for Peace Collection...
 

by theme

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Adolescents and Youth
 

Peacebuilding Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills: Desk Review and Recommendations
UNICEF, 2013

This report seeks to answer the following question: what knowledge, skills and attitudes do children and adolescents need to cope with conflict, resolve conflict, promote peace, and contribute to peace processes?  A secondary question considered in this report is: how can we effectively teach peace knowledge, skills and attitudes in conflict-affected situations?

This resource is available in English and French.

Engaging Adolescents in Conflict Analysis: Guidance Note
UNICEF, 2013

This Guidance Note offers tools and methods which UNICEF Country Offices can use to ensure the safe and meaningful participation of adolescents when doing a conflict analysis. However, the methods and tools contained within are relevant to later stages of the PBEA, as well as to UNICEF’s peacebuilding interventions more generally.

This resource is available in English and French.

Beyond Ideology and Greed: Trajectories of Young People Towards New Forms of Violence in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali
UNICEF, 2016

This study describes how societies and dynamics surrounding young people in Mali and Cote d’Ivoire structure the trajectories of some towards violence. The study finds that ideology is not a decisive motivation for young people’s engagement in violent groups, but rather a legitimation discourse a posteriori. Likewise, unemployment and greed, although they remain of importance, are not pivotal. What plays a bigger role is youth’s need to find their place in society, to be
recognized and valued, and to feel like they are contributing to a bigger initiative.

This resource is available in French, with a summary in English.

PBEA Case study of volunteers during the Ebola response in Liberia
Anthropologica, Jul 2016

This study evaluates the effects of the volunteers’ interventions as part of the Ebola response from the perspective of the volunteers themselves and other key stakeholders. It focuses on five key areas: relevance, efficiency, results and effectiveness, partnership, and sustainability.

Download this resource, and a summary.
 

Peace Clubs in Schools in Côte d’Ivoire: Participatory Video and Annual Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2015

During January 2015 a team of 10 young people were trained by Insightshare to carry out an evaluation using Participatory Video combined with Most Significant Change (PV MSC) for UNICEF WCARO and UNICEF Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of the activity was to carry out an end of year participatory evaluation led by students and young people who participate in the PBEA programme that UNICEF and partners lead in Côte d’Ivoire. The evaluation was designed to contribute to the peacebuilding activities of the organisation, to create dialogue, share lessons, raise awareness and build youth capacity. 

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uVIlVGJ-m4U0AqnzUN8qi06

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire: Peace Messenger Clubs
UNICEF, 2015

Côte d’Ivoire experienced a decade of civil war and political crisis between 2002 and 2011. Harmful political influence has infiltrated secondary schools through politicalized and violent students and teachers syndicates and gangs, making them increasingly dangerous environments for students and staff. To address this issue, the Ministry of Education introduced The Peace Clubs, at the end of the crisis in 2011 to promote peace in schools. They are a students led mechanism for conflict prevention and resolution.

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/o6fzQnl49KM (5:11)

Case Study: Peace Messengers & Peace Guardians in Cote d’Ivoire
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

This evaluation aims to give insights into what value the joint peacebuilding intervention in Daloa has yielde, and to assist in sharing and carrying the learning forwards. The partners are concerned by the regular disturbances caused by the gangs or syndicates (students and teacher strikes) leading the schools to shut down for days. They recognise this as a major risk for Cote D’Ivoire’s education system and as such they wish to better understand the profiles of the young people involved; their motivations, hopes and concerns. This evaluation and the associated videos hope therefore to address this and to look more closely at this programme that works with youth, who were socialized in violence, to help them play a positive role in society and become promoters of peace.

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uWrnY-9SZseiLLDA9X5NaFH

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire: Transitional Justice Radio
UNICEF, 2015

UNICEF has worked with young people across Côte d’Ivore to set up the “Action Justice and Peace” Network to engage in national reconciliation processes and train youth leaders to document young people’s experiences of the recent conflict. The network represents approximately 5000 members across the country, and young people have been trained in radio programming to share these stories and messages of peace with a mass audience, and encourage non-violence. 

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/Vyrskgu0Yh0 (5:00)

Participatory Video for Peacebuilding in the Southern Philippines, Trainer’s Report
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

Between April and September 2016, a participatory video project in Mindanao, the Philippines brought together young representatives from four different religious/cultural backgrounds to explore and document how conflict related issues affect youth in the region and to articulate their visions for a more peaceful future.

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUtvIa4Yp5ym9kvHy9kL4BvxkVVlq06Ht


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Conflict Analysis
 

Guide to Conflict Analysis
UNICEF, Nov 2016

This Guide is a tool to understand, situate and operationalize conflict analysis into programme planning and implementation. In the UNICEF context, conflict analysis is understood as the systematic study of the profile, causes, actors and dynamics of conflict. In essence, a conflict analysis seeks to understand who is involved in a conflict and what they want to achieve and why – including the historic and current events and developments that influence them. Each tool and concept should be contextualized and adapted to the realities, dynamics and needs of the context in which it is used.

Download this resource.

Conflict Analysis Summaries - 14 PBEA countries
UNICEF, 2014-2016

These reports summarize findings from a conflict analysis that was undertaken as part of the UNICEF Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA) funded by the Government of the Netherlands. The purpose of these reports is to understand the conflict dynamics in the following countries and to develop entry points for engagement. Click on the titles to access the reports. 

Conflict analysis summary: Burundi (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: Chad (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: Côte d’Ivoire (UNICEF, 2014)
Conflict analysis summary: Dem. Rep. of the Congo (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: Ethiopia (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: Liberia (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: Myanmar (UNICEF, 2014)
Conflict analysis summary: Pakistan (UNICEF, 2016)
Conflict analysis summary: Sierra Leone (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: Somalia (UNICEF, 2014)
Conflict analysis summary: South Sudan (UNICEF, 2015)
Conflict analysis summary: State of Palestine (UNICEF, 2016)
Conflict analysis summary: Uganda (UNICEF, 2014)
Conflict analysis summary: Yemen (UNICEF, 2014)

 

Lessons Learned for Peace: How conflict analyses informed UNICEF’s peacebuilding and education programe
UNICEF, 2017

Lessons Learned for Peace documents a wealth of information towards building the evidence base in support of multidimensional peacebuilding that occurs at all levels of society, from the community to the national government, and involving civil society, the United Nations system, and an array of international and national partners. By sharing practical experience, this report highlights factors that policymakers and practitioners in education and other sectors can apply to informing social services for peacebuilding programmes.

This resource is forthcoming.

UNICEF Technical Note on Conflict Sensitivity and Peacebuilding
UNICEF, Jun 2012

This Technical Note aims to support a more systematic approach in UNICEF to conflict sensitivity and peacebuilding. While conflict sensitivity applies to all programmes, including humanitarian, peacebuilding applies only UNICEF’s development programmes. The note explains key concepts, offers tools and approaches, identifies entry points in UNICEF strategies, frameworks and programmes, and provides examples of UNICEF programmatic contributions in this area.

Download this resource.

Programming Guide: Conflict Sensitivity and Peacebuilding
UNICEF, Nov 2016

This Programming Guide can be used as a stand-alone resource, or as a reference for UNICEF staff that have completed a workshop through the HATIS Capacity Development Project (CO, RO or online). Each tool and concept introduced should be contextualized and adapted to the realities, dynamics and needs of the context in which it is used. It is, therefore, not an exhaustive guide but provides a framework that can then be further elaborated through existing CO knowledge. In each chapter, a few sector-specific examples are shared to further shed light on how a given concept can be applied across sectoral pillars.

Download this resource.

INEE Conflict Sensitive Education Pack
INEE, 2013

INEE developed a Conflict Sensitive Education Pack to support the integration of conflict sensitivity in education policies and programs. Available in English, French, Arabic, and Spanish, the pack includes:

  • Guidance Note that offers strategies for developing and implementing conflict sensitive education programs and policies.
  • Reflection Tool that is designed to help you reflect on the impact of conflict dynamics on education programs and how these education programs can help either mitigate or exacerbate the conflict dynamics. 
  • INEE Guiding Principles on Integrating Conflict Sensitivity in Education that describes the basic principles of “do no harm” and its extensions
  • Support promotional materials including PowerPoint presentation, talking points, and user feedback form.

Download this resource.

World Development Report 2011 - Conflict, Security, and Development
The World Bank

The 2011 World development report looks across disciplines and experiences drawn from around the world to offer some ideas and practical recommendations on how to move beyond conflict and fragility and secure development. The key messages are important for all countries-low, middle, and high income-as well as for regional and global institutions: first, institutional legitimacy is the key to stability. Second, investing in citizen security, justice, and jobs is essential to reducing violence. Third, confronting this challenge effectively means that institutions need to change. Fourth, need to adopt a layered approach. Fifth, in adopting these approaches, need to be aware that the global landscape is changing. 

Download this resource.

 

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Early Childhood Development
 

Early Childhood Development and Peacebuilding Brief
UNICEF, 2015

This brief highlights a number of specific ways early childhood development programming can contribute to peacebuilding: 1. Providing safe, caring and loving environments for young children; 2. Promoting positive attitudes and skills in children; 3. Improving caregiver and children well-being; 4. Reducing con ict and violence; 5. Diminishing inequities and contributing to social justice; and 6. Serving as platforms for community cohesion. 

This resource is available in EnglishFrench, and Spanish.

Contributions of Early Childhood Development Services to Preventing Violent Conflict
Early Childhood Peace Consortium (ECPC)

The purpose of this brief is to: (1) demonstrate the societal risks that result when early childhood development (ECD) services are lacking and (2) show how ECD services contribute to sustaining peace through increasing social cohesion, equality and economic productivity.

Download this resource.

Early Childhood Education and Peacebuilding in Postconflict Northern and Eastern Uganda
UNICEF, 2015

This case study examines the role being played by Early Childhood Development (ECD), or pre-primary education, in building peaceful and resilient communities in the post-conflict contexts of Northern and Northeastern Uganda. This document is intended to be used by UNICEF staff, implementing partner organizations and other interested practitioners in the education and peacebuilding field.

Download this resource.

Early Childhood Education and Peacebuilding in Areas of ongoing Conflict and in Refugee  Settlements in Western Uganda
UNICEF, 2015

This case study seeks evidence on the ground for ECD and other developmental pathways— particularly those that lead through social structures and culture—to see what is being accomplished in terms of peacebuilding in the actual ‘here and now’ at community level. The accomplishments made by ECD, and the challenges facing centres in Western Uganda are discussed, and recommendations are offered for improving the peacebuilding and child protection potential of ECD services in situations of protracted displacement and emergency/conflict.

Download this resource.

A Systematic Policy Review of Early Childhood Development and Peacebuilding in fourteen Conflict-affected and Post-conflict countries
UNICEF, 2015

Conflict and fragile conditions that arise as a result of adversities such as civil wars, deprivation and emergency situations invariably compromise the lives of children. This research investigated policies in conflict-affected and post-conflict countries for possible links between early childhood development and peacebuilding.

Download this resource, and a summary.

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire: Women's Group and ECD
UNICEF, 2015

In the wake of conflict and violence, women in Côte d'Ivoire set up an early childhood development (ECD) center that became a platform for social interaction, dialogue, learning, and community activities that promote understanding, skills building, and peace in the community.

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/RUSg7q-oeXc (4:23)


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Education Governance
 

Exploring the Linkages between Education Sector Governance, Inequity, Conflict, and Peacebuilding in South Sudan 
UNICEF, Feb 2016

This research draws on a conceptual framework that captures the economic, cultural, political, and social dimensions of education governance and inequality and their relation to conflict and peace. The framework combines dimensions of redistribution (equality and inclusion in education access, resources, and outcomes), recognition (affirmation of diversity in education structures, processes, and content), representation (participation in decision-making related to resource allocation and use), and reconciliation (dealing with the past and relations of horizontal and vertical trust).

Download this resource.

The Links between Equity, Governance, Education and Peacebuilding in Kenya
UNICEF ESARO, Apr 2016

This study’s quantitative analysis draws on secondary statistical datasets to examine the dimensions of inequality (in terms of educational access, resources and outcomes). Qualitative analysis draws on a combination of policy documents, academic literature and stakeholder interviews to better understand the processes by which education can either contribute to conflict and tensions in Kenyan society or promote social cohesion and sustainable peacebuilding.

Download this resource.

Child-Friendly Schooling for Peacebuilding
UNICEF, 2014

This report reviews the fields of child-friendly education (CFS), and reviews the CFS approach through a peacebuilding lens, identifying elements in CFS theory and practice that are ‘peacebuilding resonant’ (already making a contribution to peacebuilding), ‘peacebuilding latent’ (having unrealized peacebuilding potential), and ‘peacebuilding gaps’ in CFS thinking and provision that need to be filled. The report also identifies and reviews noteworthy low-cost practices in education for peacebuilding developed within but also independent of the CFS framework.

Download this resource in English and French.

Literature Review: The Role of Teachers in Peacebuilding and Social Cohesion
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Sep 2015

Recognizing that teachers underpin the success of any education system, exactly what role teachers play and how they play it, varies across the different bodies of literature. Teachers can be both perpetrators and victims of violence. The recognition of the teacher themselves as agents who both experience and affect conflict highlights the need for understanding the dual role of teachers in post-conflict contexts.

Download this resource.

The Role of Teachers in Peacebuilding and Social Cohesion: A Synthesis Report on Findings from Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda
UNICEF, 2016

The purpose of this synthesis report is twofold. First, it explores the role of teachers in peacebuilding and social cohesion in four distinct conflict affected environments (Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda). Second, it compares, summarises and critically reflects on key issues, policies and governance aspects that relate to how teachers might contribute to peacebuilding and social cohesion processes. In doing so, we pay close attention to aspects of redistribution, representation, recognition and reconciliation.

Download this resource.

Literature Review: The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Nov 2015

The review identified three main rationales for the role of education in peacebuilding: education as a ‘peace dividend’; as a means of strengthening governance; and as an entry point for transformation and change. From a peacebuilding perspective, four priority areas for education policymakers can be identified from the literature: protection of children and safe learning spaces, addressing inequalities, promoting social cohesion, and supporting reconciliation.

Download this resource.

Synthesis Report: The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Mar 2016

The purpose of this synthesis report is twofold. First, it examines how education is included in peacebuilding and development frameworks in four distinct conflict-affected environments (Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda). Second, it compares, summarises and critically reflects how education policies and governance contribute to the peacebuilding process. 

Download this resource.

Literature Review: Youth Agency, Peacebuilding and Education
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding

This Literature Review on Youth Agency, Peacebuilding and Education aims to provide insights into youth agency and the dynamics of conflict and peace in conflict‐affected contexts. In particular it focuses on how educational interventions may contribute to enhancing the agency of youth as peacebuilders. The review draws on the theoretical framework developed for the consortium, which locates youth within peacebuilding processes of reconciliation, redistribution, recognition and representation (four R’s).

Download this resource.

Youth Agency and Peacebuilding: An Analysis of the Role of Formal and Non-Formal Education
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Feb 2016

Recognising education’s potential to enhance or undermine processes of sustainable peacebuilding and social cohesion, this report brings together a focus on the role of formal and non-formal education initiatives that are available to (some) youth in four conflict-affected countries: Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda. This Synthesis Report aims to understand the ways in which the agency of youth – or their ‘space for manoeuvre’ – is impacted (or not) through a range of formal and non- formal education interventions, and how this enables or restricts young peoples ability to contribute to processes of peacebuilding and social cohesion, either in political, socio-cultural or economic ways. It combines a focus on youth agency, peace building and education – an intersection that is often not addressed simultaneously. 

Download this resource.

The Role of Education in Peacebulding Country Report: Uganda
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, 2015

Education in Uganda was initially seen as a means to economic and social development. More recently, policies have started to address peacebuilding education. The current national curriculum incorporates aspects of peacebuilding to some extent. Peacebuilding is approached as a pedagogical tool for conflict prevention, but not as a means of coming to terms with a conflict-shattered past.

Download this resource.

The role of education in Peacebuilding Country Report: Myanmar
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Feb 2016

At present, there is a stark divide between the national peace process and education reform. New opportunities exist to make inclusion, conflict sensitivity and peacebuilding central pillars for further reform. Stronger reform is needed of existing language of instruction policies. The inability for children to use their mother tongues in schooling has been a grievance of various ethnic groups.

Download this resource.

The Effect of the Ebola Crisis on the Education System’s Contribution to Post-Conflict Sustainable Peacebuilding in Liberia
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Mar 2017

Liberia needs to take a stronger ownership of the education of its population. Among the policies the Government of Liberia needs to invest on is the provision of long term training for teachers and the establishment of a recruitment process that enables the entrance of staff that show motivation and quality work.

Download this resource.

The Role of Education in Peacebuilding (collection of resources)
UNICEF, 2011

The resources were commissioned by UNICEF to study the role of education in peacebuilding in post-conflict contexts. The study comprises two phases: i) a review of research and programme literature to assess existing knowledge about education’s role in peacebuilding, identify critical gaps and analyse initiatives by UNICEF and its partners in post-conflict contexts; and ii) completion of a number of country case studies and a final report that summarizes the findings.

Included in this collection:

Child Friendly Schools in Sierra Leone: Participatory Video and Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

It is not always easy to gauge and communicate the impact and outcomes of a programme or activity. This case study however did not just aim to capture if and to what degree the CFS project influenced significant changes in the lives of the children at the school in Sawula and the surrounding communities. It also aimed to provide insights into how those changes have taken place and if there were any significant links between peace, conflict and children’s education.

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uVxq5GFcA41ah8ig9sTPsk6

Peace Dividends and Beyond: Contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office, 2012

This report argues that there is significant evidence to include administrative and social services amongst the menu of choices available to directly support peacebuilding in any given context. Finding the appropriate balance among the many peacebuilding priorities in any setting should ultimately be a country-driven exercise – one that is inclusive of a wide range of stakeholders at different levels, especially historically marginalized groups.

Download this resource.


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Education Under Attack
 

Education Under Attack 2014
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2014

This is the most comprehensive compilation of data regarding targeted attacks on schools, universities, their students and staff produced to date and covers the period 2009-2013. Drawing on media, UN and NGO reports, as well as interviews with experts in the field, it found attacks occurring in 70 countries with a significant pattern of attacks taking place in 30 –more than ever reported previously. It is unknown if the high incidence of attacks documented was due to better reporting, improved research techniques, or an actual increase in attacks.

Download this resource.

The Role of Communities in Protecting Education from Attack: Lessons Learned
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2014

This report examines how organizations supporting education programs have engaged communities to protect schools, students, and teachers in countries experiencing attacks on education. GCPEA has documented a pattern of attacks in 30 countries in the last five years. The study synthesizes lessons learned in community-based efforts to protect education and presents 12 steps that organizations can take to collaborate with communities in designing protection programs. These include: coordinating with local education actors; mapping community resources; assessing risks; developing a jointly agreed plan that reflects community concerns; and working with community members, including children, in monitoring and evaluating programs.

Download this resource.

Protecting Education Personnel from Targeted Attack in Conflict-Affected Countries
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2014

The paper addresses the scope and nature of attacks on education personnel and the range of measures put in place to protect them. The paper’s priority recommendations include that Governments: adopt legislation and policies to protect teachers, including from election violence; implement the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict; not employ security forces to protect teachers unless there is a no alternative; enable teachers to return to posts after attacks when it is safe to do so; ensure that education delivery and content is conflict-sensitive; and provide accountability for attacks on education personnel.

Download this resource.

What Ministries Can Do to Protect Education from Attack and Schools from Military Use
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2015

The "Menu of Actions" in this guide is intended as a resource to empower personnel of ministries responsible for education to better prevent attacks on education or protect schools from military use, mitigate the impact of attacks when they do occur, and respond to attacks. The suggested actions for Ministries to protect education from attack consists of seven components:

  1. Analyze the situation and monitor the attacks
  2. Secure the schools
  3. Ensure education continuity
  4. Support communities
  5. Be conflict sensitive
  6. Systematize the protection of education
  7. Advocate for support, including for state endorsement of the Safe Schools Declaration and implementation of the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict

Download this resource in English and French.

What Schools Can Do to Protect Education from Attack and Military Use
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2016

This paper describes what is actually being done in the field at the school-level to protect education from attack, identifying the risks and challenges involved, and drawing out lessons learned from these measures as well as other literature on the topic. The following seven school-based measures are described: 1. Unarmed physical protection measures; 2. Armed physical protection measures; 3. Negotiations as a strategy to protect education; 4. Early warning/alert systems; 5.Alternative delivery of education; 6. Psychosocial support; and 7. Comprehensive school-based safety and security plans.

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Equity and Inequality
 

Literature Review: Horizontal Inequality in Education and Violent Conflict
FHI360 and UNICEF, Feb 2015

This review examines existing literature on inequality and intrastate conflict, the role of educational inequality in conflict settings, and the linkages between theories of conflict and the role of schools in society, with a focus on inequalities between identity groups and subsequent intergroup violence.

Download this resource.

Investment in Equity and Peacebuilding: Uganda Case Study
FHI360 and UNICEF, Mar 2015

Quantitative data shows that, since 1991, education inequalities have been decreasing in Uganda, as more groups have attained access to higher levels of education. Across the north (aside from Karamoja), however, inequalities have remained at about the same level.

Download this resource.

Investment in Equity and Peacebuilding: South Africa Case Study
FHI360 and UNICEF, May 2015

This study explores the effects of post-apartheid education policies in addressing inequity and examines whether a link can be made from equity and social capital to social cohesion. Quantitative data from several global and national administrative sources and qualitative data from interviews and focus group discussions at the Department of
Basic Education and at primary and secondary schools in Western Cape and Limpopo showed a promising start, with outcomes pending.

Download this resource.

Literature Review: Violent Conflict and Educational Inequality
FHI360 and UNICEF, Jan 2016

This review takes stock of the quantitative literature surveying whether conflict exacerbates, or improves, educational inequality experienced prior to conflict. Literature, comprised mainly of a few descriptive studies and several case studies, strongly suggests the following:

  • Conflict erodes educational progress. Yet very little research analyzes how conflict reshapes inequality in education.
  • Conflict is potentially disruptive and physical violence could change patterns of inequality, making an important case for further research in this area.
  • That who is most likely to be affected is context-specific and may depend on the nature of conflict and level of equality between groups pre-conflict.
  • Wealthier and better educated groups are likely to be more able to continue their education during periods of conflict, exacerbating inequality.
  • Severity of a conflict may determine how an education system is impacted.

Download this resource.

Does horizontal education inequality lead to violent conflict?
FHI360 and UNICEF, Apr 2015

The study explored the extent to which education inequality across ethnic and religious groups affects the likelihood of violent internal conflict onset. Education, wealth, and conflict data were collected from 200+ databases for 100+ countries for 50+ years of time (1960-2013). The study found that: 

  • The likelihood of violent conflict doubles for countries with high levels of intergroup inequality in education, after controlling for known conflict risk factors, such as wealth, political regime, geography, etc. 
  • The effect of ethnic and religious inequality is present since the year 2000. As educational access becomes more widespread, educational exclusion may be construed to carry more serious consequences for life prospects. 
  • Greater equality between male and female decreases the likelihood of conflict by as much as 37 per cent.

Download this resource.

The Effects of Armed Conflict on Educational Attainment and Inequality
FHI360 and UNICEF, Jan 2016

The study uses the variation in the timing of conflict between countries using a difference-indifferences matching strategy to identify the impacts of armed conflict on years of schooling and educational inequality. Education, wealth, and conflict data were collected from 200+ databases for nearly 100 countries and over a 50 year timespan (1960-2010). Results provide evidence that:

  • Armed conflict exacerbates pre-existing inequalities between wealth and gender groups, as well as overall inequality at the national level.
  • Conflict effects are more pronounced when ethnic in nature, particularly among those that last at least six years, and worsens over time. For instance, ethnic conflict lowers gender parity for education attainment by 7.6 per cent, lowering girls’ mean years of schooling from 4.8 to 4.4.
  • Effects of conflict on inequality are more pronounced in fragile countries.

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Education Inequality and Violent Conflict: Evidence and Policy Considerations
UNICEF and FHI360, Jun 2016

Key findings from Does horizontal education inequality lead to violent conflict? and The Effects of Armed Conflict on Educational Attainment and Inequality are summarized in this four-pager.

This policy brief hightlights the evidence that rising inequalities in education can increase the risk of conflict, and consequently, experiencing conflict can exacerbate preexisting education inequality. Among other things, investment in equitable education opportunity may be key to a country’s risk of (re)lapsing into conflict.

Download this resource.


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Gender
 

Gender, Education, and Peacebuilding Brief
UNICEF, 2016

This brief is intended to inform policy discussions among education and peacebuilding actors on relevant gender considerations across both fields.

Download this resource.

The Transformative Potential of Positive Gender Socialization in Education for Peacebuilding: Uganda
UNICEF and AIR, 2016

The Gender Socialization in Schools programme pilot in Karamoja, Uganda, has demonstrated the value of a gender-transformative approach to addressing prevailing gender norms that have contributed to conflict –and which have the potential to be harnessed for peace –in the Karamoja region. Qualitative findings indicate that stronger reinforcement strategies and links to the community as part of a longer-term approach would likely result in a transformation of teacher practices. Support from multiple community stakeholders is essential if shifts in gender roles, power relations and conflict dynamics are to be achieved at the macro level.

Download this resource.

Evaluation of the Transformative Potential of Positive Gender Socialization in Education for Peacebuilding: Uganda
UNICEF and AIR, 2016

UNICEF commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct an evaluation of the Karamoja, Uganda, pilot of the programme Gender Socialization in Schools: Enhancing the transformative power of education for peacebuilding. Supported by UNICEF and the Ugandan Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Sports (MoESTS), the programme aimed to trial a practical, school-based intervention to demonstrate the peacebuilding potential of positive gender socialization in the conflict-affected Karamoja region of north-eastern Uganda.

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Gender, Education and Peacebuilding: A review of selected Learning for Peace case studies
UNICEF, 2016

This review analyses evidence from four selected Learning for Peace projects. The overarching question the review seeks to answer is: How can education interventions address gender inequalities in contexts of armed violent conflict and in the process contribute towards sustainable peace? The case studies cover a range of contexts, institutional settings, categories of learners, and educational activities in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Somalia, and South Sudan.

Download this resource.

A Rigorous Review of Global Research Evidence on School-Related Gender-Based Violence
UNICEF, 2016

This review finds major evidence gaps exist in how to provide safe, inclusive and violence-free learning environments for girls and boys. Research has been skewed towards evaluations of short-term interventions, with little long-term follow-up. The most promising interventions with girls, boys and teachers help them to reflect critically on gender identities, norms and inequalities that shape the risk of gender-based violence; providing practical strategiesfor addressing SRGBV.

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The Communities Care programme: changing social norms to end violence against women and girls in conflict-affected communities 
Sophie Read-Hamilton, Mendy Marsh

While significant progress has been made in recent years in responding to violence against women and girls in humanitarian contexts, timely and quality care and support to survivors still remains a challenge. Little is known about effective prevention. Few interventions have targeted underlying drivers of violence against women and girls (VAWG), which include social norms. In response, UNICEF has developed the Communities Care: Transforming Lives and Preventing Violence programme, piloted in internally displaced camps and communities in Somalia and South Sudan.

Download this resource.

PBEA Uganda: Participatory Video and Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

From December 2015 to March 2016 a team of 14 young people from Karamoja district were trained by Insightshare to carry out an evaluation using Participatory Video combined with Most Significant Change (PV MSC) for UNICEF C4D Headquarters and UNICEF C4D Uganda. The aim of the activity was to carry out a qualitative end-of-programme participatory evaluation led by youth who participated in the PBEA programme at the same time as building capacity in the trainees and delivery agencies. The evaluation followed a case study approach by focusing on the work of the Straight Talk Foundation (STF) in the North Eastern district of Karamoja. 

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uWluUwzIdom4N-_kanGNice

Learning for Peace, Uganda: Gender equality in the classroom
UNICEF, 2016

A video about teachers taking control of bringing gender equality to their classrooms in Uganda.

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/_haFoGFFmu4 (5:36)


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Measuring Social Cohesion
 

Population-Based Survey on Peace and Education: Burundi
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2015

The study was carried out in partnership with UNICEF’s Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme which seeks to reduce the intergenerational transmission of violence by addressing the underlying causes of structural and cultural violence that result in repeated cycles of conflict. The study provides baseline information that will help trace progress in peacebuilding goals over time and explores differences and similarities between generations to gain insight into change across generations and enable a life cycle perspective. Results detailed in this report highlight key challenges to building a lasting peace in Burundi.

Download this resource.

Population-Based Survey on Peace and Education: Côte d’Ivoire (Now the Kids Are Safe)
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2016

This report presents the results of two surveys about peacebuilding and education conducted in Côte d’Ivoire:
(1) A survey of 2,561 youth aged 12 to 17 years old and 18 to 26 years old randomly selected throughout Côte d’Ivoire. The survey was designed to provide representative data for 5 regions.
(2) A survey in the Western region conducted among mothers randomly selected among mothers participating in mothers’ clubs supported by UNCEF and its partner, and a comparison group of mothers selected in the community. In relation to peacebuilding, the clubs offered opportunities for women to become leaders in peacebuilding through joint learning, social interactions and dialogue about key issues. A total of 433 mothers were interviewed

Download this resource.

Population-Based Survey on Peace and Education: Uganda
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2015

This baseline study involved a survey of 2,079 randomly selected respondents in Uganda, a nationwide sample of 1,024, and four additional sub-samples of 1,055 individuals to assess factors affecting resilience, social cohesion and security as elements of peacebuilding in Uganda, and the interaction of education with those factors.

Download this resource.

Population-Based Survey on Peace and Education: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Peace First)
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2017

The study was carried out in partnership with UNICEF’s Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme which seeks to reduce the intergenerational transmission of violence by addressing the underlying causes of structural and cultural violence that result in repeated cycles of conflict. The study provides baseline information that will help trace progress in peacebuilding goals over time and explores differences and similarities between generations to gain insight into change across generations and enable a life cycle perspective. Results detailed in this report highlight key challenges to building a lasting peace in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Download this resource.

Indicators Framework for Peacebuilding, Education and Social Cohesion
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2017

The guidance paper highlights a framework to think through the measurement and evaluation of education to peacebuilding. Building on the approach developed by Vinck and Pham on attitudes about peace, a proposed framework illustrates the manner in which education experience contributes to key peace factors, or even contribute to conflict where it manifests negatively – specific may inevitably differ significantly from one societal context or conflict system to another (and even from one community or family, etc. to another).

Download this resource.


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Programming
 

Emerging Practices in Design, Monitoring, and Evaluation for Education for Peacebuilding Programming
Search for Common Ground, 2015

This practical guide focuses on key elements of program DM&E for education interventions with peacebuilding aims in fragile environments. It presents critical information, practical tips, resources and tools for all stages in program cycles, and emerging practices and lessons learned from the field, including those arising from the UNICEF Learning for Peace programme.

This document addresses the following key questions:

  • What should practitioners consider when designing programs and accompanying M&E systems that contribute to education for peacebuilding programming?
  • What are unique and specific considerations for conducting outcome-oriented M&E planning within complex, conflict-sensitive contexts?
  • What are some relevant M&E tools and resources for education for peacebuilding programming?

Download this resource.

Monitoring and Evaluation of Participatory Theatre for Change
Search for Common Ground, 2016

This publication outlines specific considerations for incorporating M&E from the beginning of the Participatory Theatre for Change process. Specifically:

  • It offers practical guidance and tools for implementing monitoring and evaluation in Participatory Theatre for Change programmes, or programmes that include participatory theatre.
  • It highlights considerations and approaches for process and quality monitoring of participatory theatre programs and practitioners.

Download this resource.

 

Risk-Informed Education Programming
UNICEF, 2017

Crisis has a powerfully destructive impact on systems and populations. Policies and programs across the development to humanitarian continuum must be risk-informed in order to contribute to the resiliency of populations and social services to withstand. UNICEF is currently developing a Basic Package on Risk-Informed Programming which will include guidance and tools to support country offices to: identify hazards, assess risks, and apply risk-informed approaches to programming across all sectors.

This resource is forthcoming.
 

Learning for Peace: Narratives from the Field – A Compendium of Programme Strategies, 2012–2016
UNICEF, 2017

Learning for Peace Narratives from the Field explores the nature of conflict as a barrier to development and the potential of education as a bridge to peace. Designed for the benefit of education and peacebuilding practitioners, as well as other social service providers, it discusses a wide range of emerging conflict-sensitive (‘do no harm’) and peacebuilding (‘do more good’) strategies. These strategies and the associated documentation are based on case studies developed through diverse partnerships in the 14 core countries: Burundi, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Liberia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, the State of Palestine, Uganda and Yemen.

This resource is forthcoming.


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Resilience, Language, and Social Cohesion
 

Education and Social Cohesion Country Report: South Africa
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Apr 2016

In South Africa, the historical antecedents of colonialism punctuate the dynamics of peace, equity and social cohesion, to the extent that apartheid legacies remain manifested in the ways in which inequality persists within the new state. While post-apartheid reforms attempted to form a united education system, efforts to equalize education opportunity are not yet fully realized.

Download this resource.

 

Education and Social Cohesion in Pakistan
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, Mar 2017

Pakistan’s policy formulations and reforms in education are mostly driven by international development agendas. Explicit focus on the role of social cohesion in education policies would be more productive.

Download this resource.

A Study of Education and Resilience in Kenya’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
UNICEF, Nov 2015

This study uses a resilience framework to ask how various education systems in the arid lands are helping or hindering young people and their societies to absorb shocks, adapt to and minimize stresses, and transform in positive ways when confronted with internal change and external pressures. The question is based on the concept of peacebuilding, in which it is assumed that people and societies are resilient when they accommodate adversity through complementary absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities.

Download this resource.

Synthesis Report: Language Education & Social Cohesion (LESC) Initiative Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand
UNICEF, 2016

This LESC Synthesis Report was motivated by the need to find a response to the risks that children face in educational and non-educational settings associated with language and ethnicity issues. A key general finding of the LESC Initiative is that conventional analyses of conflict have underestimated the role of language and ethnicity differences in generating original conflicts and in sustaining conflicts once they have commenced. 

Download this resource.

Community engagement to strengthen social cohesion and child protection in Chad and Burundi
International Institute for Child Rights and Development (IICRD)

This participatory research study from Burundi and Chad reports how youth, women and elders can contribute to strengthening both child protection and social cohesion. The guiding question was: How do groups at the community level protect children, youth and women/girls while promoting social cohesion, peacebuilding and general human security? The study finds that poor governance, corruption, politicization and polarization, and resulting ethnic-induced violence; as well as lack of social services and breakdown of positive values were thought to be key drivers of conflict.

Download this resource.

INEE Background Paper on Psychosocial Support and Social & Emotional Learning for Children & Youth
INEE, 2016

The purpose of this paper is to review and clarify relevant terminologies and approaches relating to psychosocial well-being and social and emotional learning (SEL) in education in crisis-affected contexts, and to explore how psychosocial support (PSS) and social and emotional learning relate to one another. It serves as a background paper for a guidance note on psychosocial support and social and emotional learning for children and youth in emergency settings.

Download this resource in EnglishFrench, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic (forthcoming).

 

INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support and Social & Emotional Learning in Crisis and Fragile Settings
INEE, 2017

This resource is forthcoming.


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Transitional Justice
 

Education and Transitional Justice: Opportunities and Challenges for Peacebuilding
International Center for Transitional Justice, 2015 

In the past two decades, the relationship between education and conflict has received increasing attention from researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working in the fields of education, child protection, and peacebuilding. This relationship has been considered in two directions, regarding: first, the impact
of conflict on education; and second, the ways in which education can both trigger conflict and contribute to establishing peace.

Download this resource.

Transitional Justice and Education: Learning Peace
International Center for Transitional Justice and UNICEF, 2017 

This edited volume examines the relationship between transitional justice and education in peacebuilding contexts: how transitional justice can shape the reform of education systems by ensuring programs are sensitive to the legacies of the past; how it can facilitate the reintegration of children into society; and how education can engage younger generations in the work of transitional justice.

  • Links between different transitional justice measures and education can be established through truth commission reports and recommendations, court-produced educational materials, and outreach programs targeting schools.
  • Challenges include both capacity constraints and political dynamics, making it crucial to consider the interests of stakeholders such as students, educators, schools, governments, communities, and transitional justice advocates.
  • Case studies include Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Guatemala, Lebanon, Northern Ireland, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and the former Yugoslavia.

Download this resource.

Case Study on Transitional Justice, Cote d'Ivoire - Participatory Video and Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2015

During January 2015 a team of 10 young people were trained by Insightshare to carry out an evaluation using Participatory Video combined with Most Significant Change (PV MSC) for UNICEF WCARO and UNICEF Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of the activity was to carry out an end of year participatory evaluation led by students and young people who participate in the PBEA programme that UNICEF and its partners lead in Côte d’Ivoire. The evaluation used the PV MSC method to generate evidence and qualitative information from the perspective of the stakeholders in the projects. PV MSC was chosen because UNICEF wanted to capture some of the programme’s harder-to-reach results , using a participatory and youth-led approach to capture human stories with a rigorous tool. The evaluation was designed to contribute to the peacebuilding activities of the organisation, to create dialogue, share lessons, raise awareness and build youth capacity. 

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uWkn2g8GDroRu_bZzmI2tcC

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire: Transitional Justice Radio
UNICEF, 2015

UNICEF has worked with young people across Côte d’Ivore to set up the “Action Justice and Peace” Network to engage in national reconciliation processes and train youth leaders to document young people’s experiences of the recent conflict. The network represents approximately 5000 members across the country, and young people have been trained in radio programming to share these stories and messages of peace with a mass audience, and encourage non-violence. 

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/Vyrskgu0Yh0 (5:00)


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Advocacy and Issues Briefs
 

Education for Peacebuilding Brief
UNICEF, 2014

This brief makes the case that education is crucial to peacebuilding and to fostering more cohesive societies. Education is arguably the single most transformative institution that can touch every citizen, female and male, when it is equitably available, good quality, relevant and conflict-sensitive. It forms the bedrock of a country’s economy, good governance, gender equality, identity and culture.

This resource is available in English and French.

Gender, Education, and Peacebuilding Brief
UNICEF, 2016

This brief is intended to inform policy discussions among education and peacebuilding actors on relevant gender considerations across both fields.

Download this resource.

Early Childhood Development and Peacebuilding Brief
UNICEF, 2015

This brief highlights a number of specific ways early childhood development programming can contribute to peacebuilding: 1. Providing safe, caring and loving environments for young children; 2. Promoting positive attitudes and skills in children; 3. Improving caregiver and children well-being; 4. Reducing con ict and violence; 5. Diminishing inequities and contributing to social justice; and 6. Serving as platforms for community cohesion. 

This resource is available in EnglishFrench, and Spanish.

Contributions of Early Childhood Development Services to Preventing Violent Conflict
Early Childhood Peace Consortium (ECPC)

The purpose of this brief is to: (1) demonstrate the societal risks that result when early childhood development (ECD) services are lacking and (2) show how ECD services contribute to sustaining peace through increasing social cohesion, equality and economic productivity.

Download this resource.

Education Inequality and Violent Conflict: Evidence and Policy Considerations
UNICEF and FHI360, Jun 2016

Key findings from Does horizontal education inequality lead to violent conflict? and The Effects of Armed Conflict on Educational Attainment and Inequality are summarized in this four-pager.

This policy brief hightlights the evidence that rising inequalities in education can increase the risk of conflict, and consequently, experiencing conflict can exacerbate preexisting education inequality. Among other things, investment in equitable education opportunity may be key to a country’s risk of (re)lapsing into conflict.

Download this resource.

 

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Guidance Materials
 

UNICEF Technical Note on Conflict Sensitivity and Peacebuilding
UNICEF, Jun 2012

This Technical Note aims to support a more systematic approach in UNICEF to conflict sensitivity and peacebuilding. While conflict sensitivity applies to all programmes, including humanitarian, peacebuilding applies only UNICEF’s development programmes. The note explains key concepts, offers tools and approaches, identifies entry points in UNICEF strategies, frameworks and programmes, and provides examples of UNICEF programmatic contributions in this area.

Download this resource.

Guide to Conflict Analysis
UNICEF, Nov 2016

This Guide is a tool to understand, situate and operationalize conflict analysis into programme planning and implementation. In the UNICEF context, conflict analysis is understood as the systematic study of the profile, causes, actors and dynamics of conflict. In essence, a conflict analysis seeks to understand who is involved in a conflict and what they want to achieve and why – including the historic and current events and developments that influence them. Each tool and concept should be contextualized and adapted to the realities, dynamics and needs of the context in which it is used.

Download this resource.

 

Lessons Learned for Peace: How conflict analyses informed UNICEF’s peacebuilding and education programe
UNICEF, 2017

Lessons Learned for Peace documents a wealth of information towards building the evidence base in support of multidimensional peacebuilding that occurs at all levels of society, from the community to the national government, and involving civil society, the United Nations system, and an array of international and national partners. By sharing practical experience, this report highlights factors that policymakers and practitioners in education and other sectors can apply to informing social services for peacebuilding programmes.

This resource is forthcoming.

Programming Guide: Conflict Sensitivity and Peacebuilding
UNICEF, Nov 2016

This Programming Guide can be used as a stand-alone resource, or as a reference for UNICEF staff that have completed a workshop through the HATIS Capacity Development Project (CO, RO or online). Each tool and concept introduced should be contextualized and adapted to the realities, dynamics and needs of the context in which it is used. It is, therefore, not an exhaustive guide but provides a framework that can then be further elaborated through existing CO knowledge. In each chapter, a few sector-specific examples are shared to further shed light on how a given concept can be applied across sectoral pillars.

Download this resource.

INEE Conflict Sensitive Education Pack
INEE, 2013

INEE developed a Conflict Sensitive Education Pack to support the integration of conflict sensitivity in education policies and programs. Available in English, French, Arabic, and Spanish, the pack includes:

  • Guidance Note that offers strategies for developing and implementing conflict sensitive education programs and policies.
  • Reflection Tool that is designed to help you reflect on the impact of conflict dynamics on education programs and how these education programs can help either mitigate or exacerbate the conflict dynamics. 
  • INEE Guiding Principles on Integrating Conflict Sensitivity in Education that describes the basic principles of “do no harm” and its extensions
  • Support promotional materials including PowerPoint presentation, talking points, and user feedback form.

Download this resource.

 

Learning for Peace: Narratives from the Field – A Compendium of Programme Strategies, 2012–2016
UNICEF, 2017

Learning for Peace Narratives from the Field explores the nature of conflict as a barrier to development and the potential of education as a bridge to peace. Designed for the benefit of education and peacebuilding practitioners, as well as other social service providers, it discusses a wide range of emerging conflict-sensitive (‘do no harm’) and peacebuilding (‘do more good’) strategies. These strategies and the associated documentation are based on case studies developed through diverse partnerships in the 14 core countries: Burundi, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Liberia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, the State of Palestine, Uganda and Yemen.

This resource is forthcoming.
 

Child-Friendly Schooling for Peacebuilding
UNICEF, 2014

This report reviews the fields of child-friendly education (CFS), and reviews the CFS approach through a peacebuilding lens, identifying elements in CFS theory and practice that are ‘peacebuilding resonant’ (already making a contribution to peacebuilding), ‘peacebuilding latent’ (having unrealized peacebuilding potential), and ‘peacebuilding gaps’ in CFS thinking and provision that need to be filled. The report also identifies and reviews noteworthy low-cost practices in education for peacebuilding developed within but also independent of the CFS framework.

Download this resource in English and French.

INEE Background Paper on Psychosocial Support and Social & Emotional Learning for Children & Youth
INEE, 2016

The purpose of this paper is to review and clarify relevant terminologies and approaches relating to psychosocial well-being and social and emotional learning (SEL) in education in crisis-affected contexts, and to explore how psychosocial support (PSS) and social and emotional learning relate to one another. It serves as a background paper for a guidance note on psychosocial support and social and emotional learning for children and youth in emergency settings.

Download this resource in EnglishFrench, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic (forthcoming).

 

INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support and Social & Emotional Learning in Crisis and Fragile Settings
INEE, 2017

This resource is forthcoming.

The Role of Communities in Protecting Education from Attack: Lessons Learned
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2014

This report examines how organizations supporting education programs have engaged communities to protect schools, students, and teachers in countries experiencing attacks on education. GCPEA has documented a pattern of attacks in 30 countries in the last five years. The study synthesizes lessons learned in community-based efforts to protect education and presents 12 steps that organizations can take to collaborate with communities in designing protection programs. These include: coordinating with local education actors; mapping community resources; assessing risks; developing a jointly agreed plan that reflects community concerns; and working with community members, including children, in monitoring and evaluating programs.

Download this resource.

Protecting Education Personnel from Targeted Attack in Conflict-Affected Countries
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2014

The paper addresses the scope and nature of attacks on education personnel and the range of measures put in place to protect them. The paper’s priority recommendations include that Governments: adopt legislation and policies to protect teachers, including from election violence; implement the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict; not employ security forces to protect teachers unless there is a no alternative; enable teachers to return to posts after attacks when it is safe to do so; ensure that education delivery and content is conflict-sensitive; and provide accountability for attacks on education personnel.

Download this resource.

What Ministries Can Do to Protect Education from Attack and Schools from Military Use
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2015

The "Menu of Actions" in this guide is intended as a resource to empower personnel of ministries responsible for education to better prevent attacks on education or protect schools from military use, mitigate the impact of attacks when they do occur, and respond to attacks. The suggested actions for Ministries to protect education from attack consists of seven components:

  1. Analyze the situation and monitor the attacks
  2. Secure the schools
  3. Ensure education continuity
  4. Support communities
  5. Be conflict sensitive
  6. Systematize the protection of education
  7. Advocate for support, including for state endorsement of the Safe Schools Declaration and implementation of the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict

Download this resource in English and French.

What Schools Can Do to Protect Education from Attack and Military Use
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), 2016

This paper describes what is actually being done in the field at the school-level to protect education from attack, identifying the risks and challenges involved, and drawing out lessons learned from these measures as well as other literature on the topic. The following seven school-based measures are described: 1. Unarmed physical protection measures; 2. Armed physical protection measures; 3. Negotiations as a strategy to protect education; 4. Early warning/alert systems; 5.Alternative delivery of education; 6. Psychosocial support; and 7. Comprehensive school-based safety and security plans.

Download this resource.

 

Risk-Informed Education Programming
UNICEF, 2017

Crisis has a powerfully destructive impact on systems and populations. Policies and programs across the development to humanitarian continuum must be risk-informed in order to contribute to the resiliency of populations and social services to withstand. UNICEF is currently developing a Basic Package on Risk-Informed Programming which will include guidance and tools to support country offices to: identify hazards, assess risks, and apply risk-informed approaches to programming across all sectors.

This resource is forthcoming.
 

Handbook on Child Recruitment, Prevention, Release and Reintegration
UNICEF, 2017

This handbook focuses on programmatic implementation of the Paris Principles, particularly in rapid on-set emergencies. It provides comprehensive background information and technical guidance on a range of activities related to the prevention of child recruitment and child release and reintegration processes.

This resource is forthcoming.

Emerging Practices in Design, Monitoring, and Evaluation for Education for Peacebuilding Programming
Search for Common Ground, 2015

This practical guide focuses on key elements of program DM&E for education interventions with peacebuilding aims in fragile environments. It presents critical information, practical tips, resources and tools for all stages in program cycles, and emerging practices and lessons learned from the field, including those arising from the UNICEF Learning for Peace programme.

This document addresses the following key questions:

  • What should practitioners consider when designing programs and accompanying M&E systems that contribute to education for peacebuilding programming?
  • What are unique and specific considerations for conducting outcome-oriented M&E planning within complex, conflict-sensitive contexts?
  • What are some relevant M&E tools and resources for education for peacebuilding programming?

Download this resource.

Monitoring and Evaluation of Participatory Theatre for Change
Search for Common Ground, 2016

This publication outlines specific considerations for incorporating M&E from the beginning of the Participatory Theatre for Change process. Specifically:

  • It offers practical guidance and tools for implementing monitoring and evaluation in Participatory Theatre for Change programmes, or programmes that include participatory theatre.
  • It highlights considerations and approaches for process and quality monitoring of participatory theatre programs and practitioners.

Download this resource.

Indicators Framework for Peacebuilding, Education and Social Cohesion
UNICEF, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2017

The guidance paper highlights a framework to think through the measurement and evaluation of education to peacebuilding. Building on the approach developed by Vinck and Pham on attitudes about peace, a proposed framework illustrates the manner in which education experience contributes to key peace factors, or even contribute to conflict where it manifests negatively – specific may inevitably differ significantly from one societal context or conflict system to another (and even from one community or family, etc. to another).

Download this resource.

Participatory Video and the Most Signicant Change: a guide for facilitators
InsightShare, 2015

This toolkit is designed to support you in planning and carrying out evaluation using Participatory Video (PV) with the Most Significant Change (MSC) technique, or PVMSC for short. This is a participatory approach to monitoring, evaluation and learning that amplifies the voices of participants and helps organisations to better understand and improve their programmes.

Download this resource.

 

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Reports and Outcome Evaluations
 

UNICEF Programme Report 2012-2016: Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy in Conflict-Affected Contexts Programme (PBEA)
UNICEF 

The Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy in Conflict-Affected Contexts (PBEA) Programme Report summarizes processes, results, and learning that occurred during the entire course of the PBEA programme – Learning for Peace. It draws extensively on reports produced by the 14 participating UNICEF country offices, five regional offices, a total of nine headquarters sections, units or divisions, and partners engaged in the programme. These documents were systematically coded and analyzed for this report. This evidence was supplemented by a review of an extensive body of research produced within and outside the auspices of the programme, as well as Members of the Learning for Peace Programme Management Team.

The report illustrates how the programme operated on the rationale that, when delivered equitably and effectively, education and other social services can strengthen capacities to manage conflict shocks and stresses, from the national to individual levels, and promote peace, while sustaining long-term development opportunities for children, young people and their supportive communities. 

This report is available in English and French.

 

Evaluation of UNICEF’s Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA)
UNICEF

The extent to which social services (i.e. education) can be used for peacebuilding is an under-defined area of work that has not previously been tested at scale in UNICEF. Evidence was gathered from a review of documentation, two site visits, and interviews with selected staff members and partners. The evaluation employed an established methodology of ‘outcome harvesting’, which combines extensive document review with an in-person, participatory verification process.

The main findings of the evaluation were: (1) using a social service such as education for delivering peacebuilding results demonstrated that social service providers can address the causes of conflict in fragile and post-conflict countries; and that (2) UNICEF was well-positioned to engage in peacebuilding work based on its mandate and institutional strengths. 

The evaluation also noted that while UNICEF engagement in peacebuilding had strengthened, further work was required to incorporate peacebuilding solutions within education and other social service programmes. 

Click to download the full report and the summary report.

Pan-African Symposium on Education, Resilience and Social Cohesion
Federal Republic of Ethiopia, UNICEF, ADEA

This report summarizes the lessons learned and promising practices shared at the Pan-African Symposium on Education, Resilience and Social Cohesion, held on 1 –3 June 2016 at the United Nations Conference Centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The symposium was organized jointly by UNICEF (WCARO and ESARO) and the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA), with its Inter-Country Quality Node (ICQN) on Peace Education. It was attended by Ministers of Education and Heads of Delegation from 14 African countries, including conflict-torn states.

This report synthesizes the major themes and lessons learned at the symposium and outlines key recommendations. It aims to establish the empirical base for the commitments agreed upon by the Ministers and Delegations of the 14 countries represented. 

Download this resource.

   

PBEA and the Ethiopia Education Sector Development Plan
UNICEF, 2016

Three years of implementation into the UNICEF Peacebuilding Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA) in Ethiopia, the influence of the interventions are evident from the new Ministry of Education’s: Education Sector Development Plan V: 2015/16- 2019/20. This summary provides an overview of the contribution of PBEA to the ESDP V, giving specific examples of quotations, approaches and strategies. However, credit cannot be given solely to PBEA interventions for the direction the MoE are taking towards and a more equitable, resilient and socially cohesive educational system and society. 

Download this resource.

Integrating PBEA and EiE: Networking Cards in Ethiopia
UNICEF, 2015

In an effort to facilitate the continuation of education among Ethiopia's pastoral populations, UNICEF’s Peacebuilding Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA) expanded the networking cards system. Originally developed by Save the Children, these cards contain the history of the child’s education so that they may easily continue education in another ABE centre located along the migratory route. The approach was introduced in the 2014/2015 school year, during which, 6,000 networking cards were printed and distributed to children in 80 emergency prone ABE centres. To further support the initiative, 150 (20% female) School Cluster Supervisors, ABE Facilitators, and Woreda (District) Education Experts were trained on the use of the networking cards, and as a result communities have been encouraged to continue their children’s education during these migratory periods. 

Download this resource.

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Videos
 

Côte d'Ivoire
 

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire - Women's Group and ECD
UNICEF, 2015

In the wake of conflict and violence, women in Côte d'Ivoire set up an early childhood development (ECD) center that became a platform for social interaction, dialogue, learning, and community activities that promote understanding, skills building, and peace in the community.

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/RUSg7q-oeXc (4:23)


 

Peace Clubs in Schools in Côte d’Ivoire: Participatory Video and Annual Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2015

During January 2015 a team of 10 young people were trained by Insightshare to carry out an evaluation using Participatory Video combined with Most Significant Change (PV MSC) for UNICEF WCARO and UNICEF Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of the activity was to carry out an end of year participatory evaluation led by students and young people who participate in the PBEA programme that UNICEF and partners lead in Côte d’Ivoire. The evaluation was designed to contribute to the peacebuilding activities of the organisation, to create dialogue, share lessons, raise awareness and build youth capacity. 

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uVIlVGJ-m4U0AqnzUN8qi06
 

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire - Peace Messenger Clubs
UNICEF, 2015

Côte d’Ivoire experienced a decade of civil war and political crisis between 2002 and 2011. Harmful political influence has infiltrated secondary schools through politicalized and violent students and teachers syndicates and gangs, making them increasingly dangerous environments for students and staff. To address this issue, the Ministry of Education introduced The Peace Clubs, at the end of the crisis in 2011 to promote peace in schools. They are a students led mechanism for conflict prevention and resolution.

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/o6fzQnl49KM (5:11)


 

Case Study: Peace Messengers & Peace Guardians in Cote d’Ivoire
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

This evaluation aims to give insights into what value the joint peacebuilding intervention in Daloa has yielde, and to assist in sharing and carrying the learning forwards. The partners are concerned by the regular disturbances caused by the gangs or syndicates (students and teacher strikes) leading the schools to shut down for days. They recognise this as a major risk for Cote D’Ivoire’s education system and as such they wish to better understand the profiles of the young people involved; their motivations, hopes and concerns. This evaluation and the associated videos hope therefore to address this and to look more closely at this programme that works with youth, who were socialized in violence, to help them play a positive role in society and become promoters of peace.

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uWrnY-9SZseiLLDA9X5NaFH 
 

Learning for Peace, Côte d'Ivoire - Transitional Justice Radio
UNICEF, 2015

UNICEF has worked with young people across Côte d’Ivore to set up the “Action Justice and Peace” Network to engage in national reconciliation processes and train youth leaders to document young people’s experiences of the recent conflict. The network represents approximately 5000 members across the country, and young people have been trained in radio programming to share these stories and messages of peace with a mass audience, and encourage non-violence. 

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/Vyrskgu0Yh0 (5:00)


 

Case Study on Transitional Justice, Cote d'Ivoire - Participatory Video and Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2015

During January 2015 a team of 10 young people were trained by Insightshare to carry out an evaluation using Participatory Video combined with Most Significant Change (PV MSC) for UNICEF WCARO and UNICEF Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of the activity was to carry out an end of year participatory evaluation led by students and young people who participate in the PBEA programme that UNICEF and its partners lead in Côte d’Ivoire. The evaluation used the PV MSC method to generate evidence and qualitative information from the perspective of the stakeholders in the projects. PV MSC was chosen because UNICEF wanted to capture some of the programme’s harder-to-reach results , using a participatory and youth-led approach to capture human stories with a rigorous tool. The evaluation was designed to contribute to the peacebuilding activities of the organisation, to create dialogue, share lessons, raise awareness and build youth capacity. 

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Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uWkn2g8GDroRu_bZzmI2tcC

 

Philippines
 

Participatory Video for Peacebuilding in the Southern Philippines, Trainer’s Report
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

Between April and September 2016, a participatory video project in Mindanao, the Philippines brought together young representatives from four different religious/cultural backgrounds to explore and document how conflict related issues affect youth in the region and to articulate their visions for a more peaceful future.

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Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUtvIa4Yp5ym9kvHy9kL4BvxkVVlq06Ht
 

 

Sierra Leone
 

Child Friendly Schools in Sierra Leone: Participatory Video and Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

It is not always easy to gauge and communicate the impact and outcomes of a programme or activity. This case study however did not just aim to capture if and to what degree the CFS project influenced significant changes in the lives of the children at the school in Sawula and the surrounding communities. It also aimed to provide insights into how those changes have taken place and if there were any significant links between peace, conflict and children’s education.

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uVxq5GFcA41ah8ig9sTPsk6
 

 

South Sudan
 

Learning for Peace, South Sudan - Youth and Peacebuilding
https://youtu.be/W76S5SjBduA (6:06)


 

Learning for Peace, South Sudan - Mari Malek
https://youtu.be/wVyMsYPj9lU (4:17)

 

Learning for Peace, South Sudan - A Year of Plenty
https://youtu.be/c08LiQyOLq0 (5:11)

 

Learning for Peace, South Sudan - Oh, Peace, Where do you live?
https://youtu.be/6AxfoDN_mas (1:06)

 

Learning for Peace, South Sudan - Literacy in cattle camps
https://youtu.be/xSpiyG1S4IQ (1:35)

 

Learning for Peace, South Sudan - The Power of One
https://youtu.be/IEPKJS6Alkc (5:09)

 

 

Uganda
 

Learning for Peace, Uganda - Gender equality in the classroom
UNICEF, 2015

A video about teachers taking control of bringing gender equality to their classrooms in Uganda.

Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/_haFoGFFmu4 (5:36)


 

PBEA Uganda: Participatory Video and Evaluation
InsightShare and UNICEF, 2016

From December 2015 to March 2016 a team of 14 young people from Karamoja district were trained by Insightshare to carry out an evaluation using Participatory Video combined with Most Significant Change (PV MSC) for UNICEF C4D Headquarters and UNICEF C4D Uganda. The aim of the activity was to carry out a qualitative end-of-programme participatory evaluation led by youth who participated in the PBEA programme at the same time as building capacity in the trainees and delivery agencies. The evaluation followed a case study approach by focusing on the work of the Straight Talk Foundation (STF) in the North Eastern district of Karamoja. 

Download this resource.

Watch all related videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLr4Zjc7sz5uWluUwzIdom4N-_kanGNice

 

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