The third issue of the Journal on Education in Emergencies (JEiE) was published in July 2017.
With this new issue of JEiE — which consists of three research articles, one field note, and four book reviews — we return to the positive face of education as we examine its contributions to peacebuilding. The articles in this issue bring a range of analyses to this question, including a focus on social justice, reconciliation, inclusion, gender norms, and the importance of social cohesion.
The full JEiE Volume 3, Number 1 can be downloaded for free, and individual articles can be downloaded by clicking on the titles below. The full article abstracts are included below on this page. More about this issue of JEiE, including a note from the Editor, can be read on the INEE Blog.
For detailed information about the Journal on Education in Emergencies, and for instructions on how submit articles, please visit www.ineesite.org/journal.
EiE RESEARCH ARTICLES
The 4Rs Framework: Analyzing Education’s Contribution to Sustainable Peacebuilding with Social Justice in Conflict-Affected Contexts
Mario Novelli, Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo, and Alan Smith
This paper lays out a theoretical and analytical framework for researching and reflecting on the peacebuilding role of education in conflict-affected contexts. The 4Rs framework recognizes that working toward “positive peace” (Galtung 1976, 1990) requires working toward peace with social justice and reconciliation, challenging dominant “security-first” and “liberal peace” models, and gaining a better understanding of how education might support these processes in building sustainable and peaceful postconflict societies. The 4Rs framework combines dimensions of recognition, redistribution, representation, and reconciliation to explore what sustainable peacebuilding might look like through a social justice lens. The paper addresses the cultural translation of these concepts, highlighting the need for locally embedded interpretations. Rather than a fixed theoretical model, the 4Rs approach is designed as a heuristic device that promotes a dialogue among key stakeholders on the dilemmas and challenges in the field of education in emergencies. We highlight the application of a 4Rs framework through a recent case study of Myanmar, which demonstrates both the interrelated connections and the tensions between the different “Rs.” Finally, we reflect on the challenges and limitations of the approach, and the tasks ahead.
Marjorie Chinen, Andrea Coombes, Thomas De Hoop, Rosa Castro-Zarzur, and Mohammed Elmeski
This mixed-methods cluster-randomized controlled trial examines the impact of a teacher-training program that aimed to promote positive gender socialization in the conflict-affected region of Karamoja, Uganda. The theory of change suggests that the education system and teachers can play critical roles in promoting positive gender roles and gender equality, which has important implications for peacebuilding. Our study found evidence that the program positively influenced teachers’ knowledge about the difference between gender and sex, and their attitudes toward gender roles and gender identity. We found no quantitative evidence for any short-term change in teachers’ practices as a result of the program, nor did we find quantitative evidence of effects from a complementary, randomly assigned text-message intervention meant to reinforce the information delivered during the training. Qualitative research suggested that, while teachers adopted basic practices taught in the training, they were unready or unable to adopt more complex practices. The main implication is that training can influence teachers’ knowledge and attitudes on gender equality, but traditional gender norms can be a barrier to changing behavior in the short term. A further implication is the importance of involving the community to create enabling environments in which new ideas about gender equality can be accepted and translated into practice.
Rachel Hatch, Elizabeth Buckner, and Carina Omoeva
Since the end of apartheid, South Africa has embarked on extensive reforms aimed at promoting social cohesion, including progressive educational finance policy (e.g., the no-fee school policy) intended to redress historical inequalities. Because improving equality in and through education is vital to social cohesion, this case study examines whether the no-fee school policy has equalized—or is perceived to have equalized—school resources and educational opportunities in basic education. Using a mixed-methods approach that draws on household and school survey data and in-depth interviews, we find that the no-fee school policy has reduced the financial burden on black South Africans but that wide gaps in school resources remain. Moreover, we find that the concentration of black students in schools in the poorest areas and of white students in schools in the wealthiest areas rose between 2003 and 2013, and that some black South Africans are dissatisfied with their poor access to elite schools and the superior educational opportunities they offer. Our study argues that South Africa’s current school finance policies may be better characterized as pro-poor than redistributive, and points to implications for social cohesion.
Marleen Renders and Neven Knezevic
“Education is a basic human right, as well as a precondition for peace, prosperity and justice to return to Somali citizens on a lasting basis.” (Cassanelli and Abdikadir 2008, 91)
How can education services in fragile and conflict-affected settings sustain education results and help break the cyclical patterns of conflict that lead to massive reversals in development, including in education? This field note presents the case of the review of the curriculum framework in Somalia, a UNICEF-supported education intervention that intentionally engaged with the drivers of conflict. The note outlines how this mainstream education intervention with a widened focus on building youths’ civic participation, can help to build a capacity for peace at various levels (individual, group, and policy) in terms of substance and process. It also provides emerging results, limitations, and observations about the intervention. The field note concludes by offering some reflections on inclusive and relevant service delivery as a critical part of peace- and state-building in fragile settings.