States have committed to Sustainable Development Goal 4, aiming to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. SDG4 contains a commitment to supporting people and countries affected by conflict, and to ensure that education is maintained during emergency, conflict and post-conflict situations. It explicitly commits to education for refugees and IDPs, which will help to ensure that displaced children become systematically more visible and accounted for in education planning and monitoring in the coming years.
Forced displacement occurs when individuals and communities have been forced
or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence,
in particular as a result of, or in order to avoid the effects of, armed conflict,
situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights,
epidemics, or natural or human-made disasters
(Global Protection Cluster 2010, page 137).
Access to quality education is very limited for displaced children and youth. Refugees are five times more likely to be out of school than non-refugee children. At least 3.5 million school-age refugees remain out-of-school. Only 61% of refugee children attend primary school, and only 23% attend secondary school. Less than 1% of refugee students are enrolled in tertiary education.
Key Statistics and Messages
By the end of 2016, 65.6 million individuals were forcibly displaced worldwide as a result of persecution, conflict, violence, or human rights violations (1)
In 2016, approximately 51% of refugees were children under the age of 18 (1);
Only 61% of refugee children attend primary school compared to a global level of 91% (1);
Only 23% of refugee adolescents attend secondary school compared to a global average of 84% (1);
Only 1% of refugee youth go to university, compared to a global average of 36% (1);
The average time refugees spent outside home countries is
17 years, and only 1% of refugees return to their countries of origin. (3)
There is currently no established mechanism within the humanitarian field for collecting comparative data for IDP populations who represent 62% of all displaced people in 2015 (40.8 million) (2);
86% of all refugees are hosted in developing countries. (4)
Common barriers to access at all levels of education include restrictions to enrolmentin school due to lack or non-recognition of documentation and/or certification; lack of schools in
reasonable distance or lack of safe transport, lack of qualified
teachers and learning material, language barriers, and economic barriers related to work availability or the right to work, which can result in pressure for children and youth to engage in domestic labour or wage-earning activities. (1)
Particular challenges for displaced girls include social and cultural norms and expectations aboutattending school or about attending alongside boys and
male teachers, lack of female teachers, and inadequate learning facilities (including sufficient appropriate WASH facilities and access to hygiene products), early pregnancy and/or marriage, and security or personal safety concerns. (1)
The INEE Education Policy Working Group co-organized an international conference sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and INEE, which was held in Berlin on 2 November 2016. This conference brought together international humanitarian and development actors to take stock of their engagement, discuss challenges and effective approaches, identify synergies, and strengthen partnerships for education and skills development in contexts of forced displacement.
Please see here for more information about the conference and materials, including the full meeting recording.
E-forum: Planning for the inclusion of displaced populations in the education sector, 3-15 October 2016
IIEP, together with UNHCR, the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) and Education Above All’s Protecting Education in Insecurity and Conflict (PEIC) programme organized an e-Forum which brought together 473 participants from 86 countries, including education officials, humanitarian and development partners, refugees and IDPs, and teaching staff. Participants discussed challenges and identified effective strategies to support Ministries of Education in planning for displaced populations.
Please see here for the e-Forum report summarising the discussions.
Webinar on ICT for education in emergencies (ICT4EiE), 18 May 2016
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have the potential to support, enhance, and enable education for the most marginalized. The INEE Education Policy Working Group, together with partners, organized a webinar on ICT for education in emergencies to share emerging research from two landscape reviews on ICT for Education in Conflict and Crisis and on Technology for Refugee and IDP Education, which were launched at the UNESCO Mobile Learning Week in 2016. The webinar discussed promising results and lessons learnt regarding the use of ICT for education in contexts of forced displacement.
Please see here for more information about the webinar, including the full recording.