Promoting access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all persons affected by crisis

Annotated Bibliography: Teacher Professional Development in Crisis

This annotated bibliography reflects the results from a review of the literature regarding teacher professional development (TPD) in conflict, post-conflict, fragile, and developing contexts.  The scope of the literature includes aspects of TPD such as specific models and approaches, information and communications technologies (ICT), teacher management, theoretical frameworks for strategic TPD, and the impact of TPD on a variety of outcomes. INEE community. To suggest additional articles to be included in the annotated bibliography or for further information, please contact minimumstandards@ineesite.org.

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Annotated Bibliography (presented alphabetically)

Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit. (2004). Situational analysis: Teacher education and professional development in Afghanistan. Kabul, Afghanistan: Jeaniene Spink.

American Institute for Research. (2010). Making professional development more strategic: A conceptual model for district decisionmakers. Washington, D.C.: Michael S. Garet, Meredith Ludwig, Kwang Yoon, Andrew Wayne, Beatrice Birman, and Anthony Milanowski.

Avalos, B. (1998). School-based teacher development: The experience of teacher professional groups in secondary schools in Chile. Teacher and Teacher Education, 14(30): 257-271.

Boitshwarelo, B. (2009). Exploring blended learning for science teacher professional development in an African context. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(4): 1-19.

Cave, A. and Mulloy, M. (2010). How do cognitive and motivational factors influence teachers’ degree of program implementation?: A qualitative examination of teacher perspectives. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 27(4): 1-26.

Centre for International Development, University of Sussex. (2003). Primary teacher education in Malawi: Insights into practice and policy. Multi-Site Teacher Education Research Project, Country Report Three. Sussex: Demis Kunje, Keith Lewin, and Janet Stuart.

Center for International Education, University of Sussex. (2011). Teacher preparation and continuing professional development in Africa: Learning to teach early reading and mathematics. Sussex: Kwame Akyeampong, John Pryor, Jo Westbrook, and Kattie Lussier.

CFBT Education Trust. (2008). Managing teachers: The centrality of teacher management to quality education. Lessons from developing countries. London: Chikondi Mpokosa and Susy Ndaruhutse.

Commonwealth of Learning. (2013). Open Educational Resources: Innovation, research and practice. Vancouver: Rory McGreal, Wanjira Kinuthia, and Stewart Marshall (Eds.).

Continuing Professional Development Review Group. (2007). Continuing Professional Development (CPD): What do specialists do in CPD programmes for which there is evidence of positive outcomes for pupils and teachers? London: Philippa Cordingley, Miranda Bell, Colin Isham, Donald Evans, and Antonia Firth.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (2009). Effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington, D.C.: Rolf K. Blank and Nina de las Alas.

Education Development Center, Inc. (2011). Distance education for teacher training: Modes, models, and methods. Washington D.C.: Mary Burns.

EPPI Centre. (2012). What are the impacts and cost effectiveness of strategies to improve performance of untrained and under-trained teachers in the classroom in developing countries? London: John Pryor, Jo Westbrook, Christine Abu-Yeboah, David Orr, and Naureen Durrani.

Goedeke, S. (2000). Imbali Guidance Project: Facilitating development among guidance educators in Kwa Zulu Natal, South Africa. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 15(1): 27-48.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3-4): 381-391.

Haßler, B., Hennessy, S., and Lubasi, B. (2011). Changing classroom practice using a school-based professional development approach to introducing digital resources in Zambia. Itupale Online Journal of African Studies, 3: 17-31.

Information for Development Program. (2005). Using technology to train teachers: Appropriate uses of ICT for teacher professional development in developing countries. Washington, D.C.: Edmond Gaible and Mary Burns.

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. (2009). Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation in Fragile States, Situations of Displacement and Post-Crisis Recovery. New York.

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. (2010a). Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery. New York.

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. (2010b). Guidance Notes on Teaching and Learning. New York.

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. (2010c). Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education. New York.

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. (2010d). Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. New York.

International Academy of Education. (2008). Teacher professional learning and development. Educational Practices Series, 18. Geneva: Helen Timperly.

International Rescue Committee. (2007). Teaching well? Educational reconstruction efforts and support to teachers in postwar Liberia. New York

Intervention. (2005). Training teachers in areas of armed conflict: An online manual. The Netherlands: Stielfelhagen, R. and Veer, Guus V. D. (Eds.).

Johnson, S., Monk, M., and Hodges, M. (2000). Teacher development and change in South Africa: A critique of the appropriateness of transfer of northern/western practice. Compare, 30(2): 179-192.

Kirk, J. and Winthrop, R. (2006). Home-based schooling: Access to quality education for Afghan girls. Journal of Education for International Development, 2(2): 1-9.

Kirk, Jackie and Winthrop, R. (2007). Promoting quality education in refugee contexts: Supporting teacher development in Northern Ethiopia. International Review of Education, 53(5-6):  715-723.

Learning Forward. (2011). Standards for professional learning: Quick reference guide. Ohio.

Lunenburg, M., Korthagen, F., and Swine, A. (2007). The teacher educator as a role model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23: 586-601.

Mestry, R., Hendricks, I. and Bisschoff, T. (2009). Perceptions of teachers on the benefits of teacher development programmes in one province in South Africa. South Africa Journal of Education, 29: 475-490.

O’Sullivan, M. C. (2002). Action research and the transfer of reflective approaches to in-service education and training (INSET) for unqualified and underqualified primary teachers in Namibia. Teaching and Learning, 18: 523-539.

OECD. (2009). Creating effective teaching and learning environments: First results from TALIS. Paris.

Ono, Y. and Ferreira, J. (2010). A case study of continuing teacher professional development through lesson study in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 30: 59-74.

Phelps, R. and Graham, A. (2008). Developing technology together, together: A whole-school metacognitive approach to ICT teacher professional development. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24(4): 125-133.

Rutaisire, J. and Gahima, C. (2009). Policy and research in a post-conflict context: Issues and challenges in the implementation of the Rwandan teacher professional development and management policy. International Journal of Educational Management, 23(4): 326-335.

Shepler, S. and Routh, S. (2012). Effects in post-conflict West Africa of teacher training for refugee women. Gender and Education, 24(4): 1-13.

Showers, B. and Joyce, B. (1996). The evolution of peer coaching. Improving Professional Practice, 53(6): 12-16.

Showers, B., Joyce, B., and Bennett, B. (1987). Synthesis of research on staff development: A framework for future study and a state-of-the-art analysis. Education Leadership, 45(3): 77-87.

Stein, G. M. (2011). Continuing professional development in South African schools: Staff perceptions and the role of principals. Journal of Social Sciences, 28(1): 43-53.

Intervention. (2005). Training teachers in areas of armed conflict: An online manual. The Netherlands: Stielfelhagen, R. and Veer, Guus V. D. (Eds.).

Thakrar, J., Zinn, D. and Wolfe den, F. (2009). Harnessing open educational resources to the challenges of teacher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(4): 1-15.

UNESCO. (2003). Teacher professional development: An international review of the literature. Paris: Eleonora Villegas-Reamers.

UNESCO. (2011). Improving the conditions of teachers and teaching in rural schools across African countries. Addis Ababa: Segun Olugbenga Adedeji and Olanrewaju Olaniyan.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2006). Teachers and educational quality: Monitoring global needs for 2015. Montreal.

UNICEF. (2002). Women teachers empowered in India: Teacher training through a gender lens.  New York: Sandra Stacki.

Unwin, T. (2005) Towards a framework for the use of ICT in teacher training in Africa. Open Learning, 20(2): 113-129.

USAID. (2006). Quality of education and teacher learning: A review of the literature. Washington, D.C.: Elizabeth Leu and Alison Price-Rom.

USAID. (2008). Active-learning pedagogies – Policy, professional development and classroom practices – A case study of two post-conflict contexts: Afghanistan and Somaliland. Washington, D.C.: Geeta Mennon.

Walker, M. (1994). Professional development through action research in township primary schools in South Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 14(1): 65-73.

Weldon, G. (2010). Post-conflict teacher development: Facing the past in South Africa. Journal of Moral Education, 39(3): 353-364.

Winthrop, R. and Kirk, J. (2005). Teacher development and student well-being. Forced Migration Review, 22: 18-21.

Below are presented two sample annotations from the complete annotated bibliography.

Kirk, J. and Winthrop, R. (2006). Home-based schooling: Access to quality education for Afghan girls. Journal of Education for International Development, 2(2): 1-9.

Female enrollment rates in Afghanistan have increased dramatically; still, roughly 60% of girls remain out of school. This paper explores a home-based primary schooling program in Afghanistan. It uses interviews conducted with 19 teachers trained in the IRC Healing Classrooms Initiative. It also includes data from research conducted on USAID’s EQUIPS 2 program. The authors find that the majority of teachers were asked to teach by a shara and that many teachers are women or mullahs. They also find wide variation in educational levels of teachers. In general, it was more desirable among community members to have female educators, but male teachers were also perceived as trustworthy so long as they came from that community. Local teachers typically understood community issues, values, and attitudes more fully than teachers from outside the community. Teachers generally relied on traditional, teacher-centered approaches to instruction. The authors cite several challenges that persist for the home-based schooling movement. Among these are its lack of sustainability, the poor working conditions, and the lack of resources for instruction. Given these findings, the authors recommend a policy focus on home-based schools when they are the last available option. They also recommend the development of mechanisms that recognize and accredit alternative qualifications of home-based schoolteachers.

Rutaisire, J. and Gahima, C. (2009). Policy and research in a post-conflict context: Issues and challenges in the implementation of the Rwandan teacher professional development and management policy. International Journal of Educational Management, 23(4): 326-335.

Rwanda developed the Education Strategic Sector Plan (2003) to address the issue of unqualified teachers in schools. The Ministry of Education provided teacher training to improve teacher knowledge, skills, methodology, and qualifications of untrained teachers currently serving in schools. The plan, administered by the Kigali Institute of Education, targeted science and language teachers over a four-year time span. A specific component of the plan, the Rwandan Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy, specifically attempted to improve teachers’ image, motivation, and retention by increasing teacher pay and training incentives. TDM emphasized school-based teacher training approaches. In addition, TDM promoted greater teacher ownership over professional development. Lack of supervisory and mentoring capacity, however, limited the successful implementation of the policy. Based on their analysis of this policy, the authors recommend that teacher training should occur at the school level and that policy makers should encourage communities of practice that contribute to an improved professional image of teachers.