Promoting access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all persons affected by crisis

Annotated Bibliography: Early Childhood Care and Development in Emergency Situations

This annotated bibliography reflects the findings from a scoping exercise to identify the published research about young children in emergency and crisis. Every year, emergenices place millions of children at risk worldwide affecting young children's security, health, emotional and psychosocial development. Early Childhood care and development (ECCD) in emergencies provides immediate, life-saving, multi-sectoral support for children from conception to eight years during times of crisis. The scope of the literature includes aspects of the need for ECCD in emergencies; interventions in ECCD in different types of emergency; and curricula, resources, training and dissemination of information for ECCD in emergencies. To suggest additional articles to be included in the annotated bibliography or for further information, please contact or

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Annotated Bibliography (presented alphabetically)

Abdelmoneium, A. O. (2005). "Challenges facing children in education and labour: case study of displaced children in Khartoum - Sudan " Ahfad Journal 22(2): 64 76.

Aber, J. and E. T. Gershoff. (2004). "Child, Youth, and Parent Responses to the Terrorism of September 11, 2001: Implications for Applied Developmental Science and Practice." Applied Developmental Science 8(4): 221-225.

Abrahams, J. (2001). "Disaster management in Australia: The national emergency management system." Emergency Medicine 13(2): 165-173.

Action for the Rights of Children (ARC). (2001). Foundations: Working with children: 84.

Aduriz, M. E., C. Bluthgen, et al. (2009). "Helping child flood victims using group EMDR intervention in Argentina: Treatment outcome and gender differences." International Journal of Stress Management 16(2): 138-153.

Aghayan, C., A. Schellhaas, et al. (2005). "Project Katrina." Early Childhood Research & Practice 7(2).

Aguilar, P. and G. Retamal (2009). "Protective environments and quality education in humanitarian contexts." International Journal of Educational Development 29(1): 3-16.

Aguilera, D. M. and L. A. Planchon (1995). "The American Psychological Association-California Psychological Association Disaster Response Project: Lessons from the past, guidelines for the future." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 26(6): 550-557.

Ahmed, S. H. and M. N. Siddiqi (2006). "Healing through art therapy in disaster settings." Lancet, Lancet. 368: 28-29.

AiZhong, L., T. Hongzhuan, et al. (2007). "Brief Screening Instrument of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents 7-15 Years of Age." Child Psychiatry & HumanDevelopment 38(3): 195-202.

Azarian, A., T. W. Miller, et al. (1996). "Baseline assessment of children traumatized by the Armenian earthquake." Child Psychiatry & Human Development 27(1): 29-41.

Back, E., C. Cameron, et al. (2009). Children and disaster risk reduction: taking stock and moving forward. Brighton, Children in a changing climate.

Bada Math, S., S. C. Girimaji, et al. (2006). "Tsunami: Psychosocial aspects of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Assessments and intervention in the early phase." International Review of Psychiatry 18(3): 233-239.

Baggerly, J. and H. A. Exum (2008). "Counseling Children After Natural Disasters: Guidance for Family Therapists." American Journal of Family Therapy 36(1): 79 93.

Baggerly, J. N. and M. G. Rank (2005). "Bioterrorism Preparedness: What School Counselors Need to Know." Professional School Counseling 8(5): 458-464.

Bahrick, L. E., J. F. Parker, et al. (1998). "The effects of stress on young children's memory for a natural disaster." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 4(4): 308-331.

Bartlett, S. (2008). "After the tsunami in Cooka Nagar: The challenges of participatory rebuilding." Children, youth and environments 18(1).

Bartlett, S. and S. Iltus (2006). Making space for children: Planning for post-disaster reconstruction with children and their families. Chennai, Save the Children.

Becker, S. M. (2006). "Psychosocial Care for Adult and Child Survivors of the 2004 Tsunami Disaster in India." American Journal of Public Health 96(8): 1397-1398.

Bender, W. N. and R. Sims (2007). "Katrina Kids!" Teaching Exceptional Children 40(1): 40-47.

Bernard van Leer Foundation (2005). Early childhood matters Responses to young children in post emergency situations. The Hague, Bernard van Leer Foundation. 104.

Bernard van Leer Foundation (2009). Early childhood matters. Realising the rights of young children: progress and challenges. The Hague, Bernard van Leer Foundation, . 113.

Bhushan, B. and J. S. Kumar (2007). "Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children Surviving The 2004 Tsunami." Journal of Loss & Trauma 12(3): 245-257.

Bilmes, J. and C. Heroman (2006). Helping children rebound: Strategies for infant and toddler teachers after the 2005 hurricanes. Washington DC, Teaching Strategies Inc.

Birmes, P., J.P. Raynaud, et al. (2009). "Children's enduring PTSD symptoms are related to their family's adaptability and cohesion." Community Mental Health Journal 45(4): 290-299.

Boer, F., C. Smit, et al. (2009). "Impact of a technological disaster on young children: A five year post disaster multiinformant study." Journal of Traumatic Stress 22 (6): 516-524.

Bokszczanin, A. (2007). "PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents 28 months after a flood: Age and gender differences." Journal of Traumatic Stress 20(3): 347 351.

Bokszczanin, A. (2008). "Parental support, family conflict, and overprotectiveness: Predicting PTSD symptom levels of adolescents 28 months after a natural disaster." Anxiety, Stress & Coping 21(4): 325-335.

Boyden, J. (2007). "Children, war and world disorder in the 21st century: a review of the theories and the literature on children's contributions to armed violence." Conflict, Security & Development 2(2): 255-279.

Boyden, J., J. de Berry, et al. (2002). Children Affected by Armed Conflict in South Asia: A review of trends and issues identified through secondary research Working Paper Series.Oxford, Refugees Study Centre Oxford University.

Bremner, J. D., E. Vermetten, et al. (2000). "Development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of childhood trauma: The early trauma inventory." Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269) 12(1): 1-12.

Brown, M., R. Sidzumo-Sanders, et al. (1996). "The Tsolo violence and the need for a social policy for emergency situations." Maatskaplike Werk/Social Work 32(1): 89-94.

Buekens, P., X. Xiong, et al. (2006). "Hurricanes and pregnancy." Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care 33(2): 91-93.

Camilleri, P., C. Healy, et al. (2007). Recovering from the Canberra 2003 bushfire: a work in progress. Watson, ACT, Australian Catholic University

Carr, A. (2004). "Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents." Pediatric Rehabilitation 7(4): 231-244.

Catani, C., N. Jacob, et al. (2008). "Family violence, war, and natural disasters: A study of the effect of extreme stress on children's mental health in Sri Lanka." BMC Psychiatry 8(Special section): p1-10.

Catani, C., M. Kohiladevy, et al. (2009). "Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka." BMC Psychiatry 9(Special section): 1-11.

Chemtob, C. M., J. Nakashima, et al. (2002). "Brief Treatment for Elementary School Children with Disaster-Related Posttraumatic Stress." Journal of Clinical Psychology 58(1): 99-112.

Chen, H., H. Chung, et al. (2003). "The emotional distress in a community after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center." Community Mental Health Journal 39(2): 157-165.

Childs, N. M., J. L. H. Hodgson, et al. (2004). "The Impact of Hurricane Floyd on Eastern North Carolina's School-Aged Children." Journal of Trauma Practice 3(3): 17-45.

Cohen, J. A., L. H. Jaycox, et al. (2009). "Treating traumatized children after Hurricane Katrina: Project Fleur-de lisTM." Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 12(1): 55-64.

Cohen, J. A. and A. P. Mannarino (2008). "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Children and Parents." Child & Adolescent Mental Health 13(4): 158-162.

Committee on Environmental Health (2003). "Radiation Disasters and Children." Pediatrics 111(6): 1455.

Connolly, P., J. Hayden, et al. (2007). From Conflict to Peace Building: The Power of Early Childhood Initiatives, Lessons from Around the World. Redmond WA.

Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). "Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration." School Psychology Review 33(1): 127-139.

Corbin, J. N. (2008). "Returning home: resettlement of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda." Disasters 32(2): 316-335.

Cryder, C. H., R. P. Kilmer, et al. (2006). "An exploratory study of posttraumatic growth in children following a natural disaster." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76(1): 65-69.

Cuninghame, C., T. Hyder, et al. (2001). Guidelines for early childhood development programmes in conflicts and emergencies in The Balkans, Save the Children: 57.

Davis, L. and L. J. Siegel (2000). "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Review and Analysis." Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review 3(3): 135-154.

Day, S. and A. Dwyer (2003). "How vulnerable is your community to a natural hazard? Using synthetic estimation to produces spatial estimates of vulnerability." Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, 9(3): 299-216.

de Winter, M. (2007). "Improving the quality of psychosocial support for children and adolescents in the Darfur refugee camps." Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work & Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict 5(1): 61-66.

Dean, K. L., A. K. Langley, et al. (2008). "School-based disaster mental health services: Clinical, policy, and community challenges." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 39(1): 52-57.

Deering, C. G. (2000). "A Cognitive Developmental Approach to Understanding How Children Cope With Disasters." Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 13(1): 7-16.

Department of Health NSW (2009). Disaster preparedness education strategic framework 2008-2011. North Sydney, Department of Health NSW.

DeVoe, E. R., W. M. Bannon, Jr., et al. (2006). "Post-9/11 helpseeking by New York City parents on behalf of highly exposed young children." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76(2): 167-175.

Diaz, J. O. P. (1999). "Stressors in Puerto Rican Children as a Result of Hurricane Georges." Education 119(4): 658-663.

Dirkzwager, A. J., J. J. Kerssens, et al. (2006). "Health problems in children and adolescents before and after a man-made disaster." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 45(1): 94-103.

Dolch, N. A., D. L. Meyer, et al. (2008). "Hurricane disaster response by school based health centers." Children, youth and environments 18(1).

Doostgharin, T. (2009). "Children affected by earthquakes and their immediate emotional needs." International Social Work 52(1): 96-106.

Dugan, E. M., M. S. Snow, et al. (2010). "Working with Children Affected by Hurricane Katrina: Two Case Studies in Play Therapy." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 15(1): 52-55.

Dybdahl, R. (2001). "Children and mothers in war: An outcome study of a psychosocial intervention program." Child Development 72(4): 1214.

Ekşi, A., K. L. Braun, et al. (2007). "Risk factors for the development of PTSD and depression among child and adolescent victims following a 7.4 magnitude earthquake." International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 11(3): 190-199.

Eksi, A., G. Peykerli, et al. (2008). "Vivid Intrusive Memories in PTSD: Responses of Child Earthquake Survivors in Turkey." Journal of Loss & Trauma 13(2/3): 123-155.

Ellemor, H. (2005). "Reconsidering emergency management and indigenous communities in Australia." Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1): 1-7.

Emergency Management Australia (2003). Community development in recovery from disaster. Canberra, Emergency Management Australia. PART III, Volume 3: Guidelines Guide 13: 52.

Ensor, M. O. (2008). "Displaced once again: Honduran migrant children in the path of Katrina." Children, youth and environments 18(1): 280-302.

Eriksson, A. (2007). "Special report: Silent disasters." Nursing & Health Sciences 9(4): 243-245.

Evans, J. L. (1996). Children as zones of peace: Working with young children affected by armed violence. Coordinators' Notebook No. 19, The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development.

Evans, L. and J. Oehler-Stinnett (2006). "Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists." School Psychology International 27(1): 33-55.

Evans, L. G. and J. Oehler-Stinnett (2006). "Structure and prevalence of PTSD symptomology in children who have experienced a severe tornado." Psychology in the Schools 43(3): 283-295.

Fairbrother, G., J. Stuber, et al. (2004). "Unmet Need for Counseling Services by Children in New York City After the September 11th Attacks on the World Trade Center: Implications for Pediatricians." Pediatrics 113(5): 1367-1374.

Finn, C. A. (2003). "Helping Students Cope with Loss: Incorporating Art into Group Counseling." The Journal for Specialists in Group Work 28(2): 155 - 165.

Fivush, R., J. McDermott Sales, et al. (2004). "Weathering the storm: Children's long-term recall of Hurricane Andrew." Memory 12(1): 104.

Fozzard, S. (1995). Surviving violence: A recovery programme for children and families. New York, International Catholic Child Bureau Inc.

Frost, J. L. (2005). "Lessons from disasters: play, work, and the creative arts." Childhood Education 82(1): 2(7).

Galindo, A. A. G., N. Sanmarti, et al. (2006). "Explaining events in the environment to primary school students." Journal of Biological Education 40(4): 149-154.

Gangi, J. M. and E. Barowsky (2009). "Listening to children's voices: literature and the arts as means of responding to the effects of war, terrorism, and disaster.(Report)." Childhood Education 85(6): 357(7).

Gay, G. (2007). "Teaching children of catastrophe.(Schools, Culture, and Trauma)." Multicultural Education 15(2): 55.

Gelkopf, M., P. Ryan, et al. (2008). "The impact of "training the trainers" course for helping tsunami-survivor children on Sri Lankan disaster volunteer workers." International Journal of Stress Management 15(2): 117-135.

Gill, S., L. Gulsvig, et al. (2008). "Children and disasters annotated resources." Children, youth and environments 18(1): 485-510.

Gilmore, L. A. and M. A. Campbell (2007). "Spiders, bullies, monsters or terrorists: What scares Australian children?" Children Australia 32(3): 29-33.

Gittelman, M. (2003). "Disasters and Psychosocial Rehabilitation." International Journal of Mental Health 32(4): 51-69.

Gostelow, L. (2000). "Children In the midst of calamity." Lancet 356: s19-s19.

Graham, S. and D. Haines (2008). Education in emergencies. A toolkit for starting and managing a programme. London, Save the Children Fund.

Gross, R. and P. Webb (2006). "Wasting time for wasted children: severe child undernutrition must be resolved in non-emergency settings." Lancet 367(9517): 1209-1211.

Grotberg, E. H. (2001). "Resilience programs for children in disaster." Ambulatory Child Health 7(2).

Hadi, F. A. and M. M. Llabre. (1998). "The Gulf Crisis Experience of Kuwaiti Children: Psychological and Cognitive Factors." Journal of Traumatic Stress 11(1): 45-56.

Hagan, J. F. (2005). "Psychosocial Implications of Disaster or Terrorism on Children: A Guide for the Pediatrician." Pediatrics 116(3): 787-795.

Hamblen, J. L., L. E. Gibson, et al. (2006). "Cognitive behavioral therapy for prolonged postdisaster distress." Journal of Clinical Psychology 62(8): 1043-1052.

Havenaar, J. M., G. M. Rumyantzeva, et al. (1997). "Long-term mental health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: An epidemiologic survey in two former Soviet regions." American Journal of Psychiatry 154(11): 1605-1607.

Heath, M. A., A. B. Nickerson, et al. (2009). "Strengthening Cultural Sensitivity in Children's Disaster Mental Health Services." School Psychology International 30(4): 347-373.

Hebert, B. B. and M. B. Ballard (2007). "Children and Trauma: A Post-Katrina and Rita Response." Professional School Counseling 11(2): 140-144.

Heenan, D. (2006). "Art as therapy: an effective way of promoting positive mental health?" Disability & Society 21(2): 179-191.

Henry, D. B., P. H. Tolan, et al. (2004). "Have There Been Lasting Effects Associated With the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks Among Inner-City Parents and Children?" Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35(5): 542-547.

Heroman, C. and J. Bilmes (2005). Helping children rebound: Strategies for preschool teachers after the 2005 hurricanes. Washington DC, Teaching Strategies Inc.

Hobeish, Z. (2007). "Children during and after armed conflict." Qatr an nada(10): 13-15.

Hobfoll, S. E., P. Watson, et al. (2007). "Five Essential Elements of Immediate and Mid—Term Mass Trauma Intervention: Empirical Evidence." Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes 70(4): 283-315.

Hoge, E. A., E. D. Austin, et al. (2007). "Resilience: research evidence and conceptual considerations for posttraumatic stress disorder." Depression and Anxiety 24(2): 139-152.

Hosea, H. (2006). ""The Brush's Footmarks": Parents and infants paint together in a small community art therapy group." International Journal of Art Therapy: Formerly Inscape 11(2):69 - 78.

Hoven, C. W., C. S. Duarte, et al. (2004). "Exposure to Trauma and Separation Anxiety in Children After the WTC attack." Applied Developmental Science 8(4): 172-183.

Howe, M. L. (1997). "Children's memory for traumatic experiences." Learning & Individual Differences 9(2): 153.

Htay, H. (2006). "Mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness in Myanmar." International Review of Psychiatry 18(6): 579-585.

Igreja, V. (2003). "The effects of traumatic experiences on the infant-mother relationship in the former war zones of central Mozambique: The case of madzawde in Gorongosa." Infant Mental Health Journal 24(5): 469-494.

Igreja, V. (2004). Cultural disruption and the care of infants in postwar Mozambique Children and Youth on the Front Line. Ethnography, Armed Conflict and Displacement. J. Boyden and J. de Berry. New York, Berghahn: 23-41.

Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) Core Group (2007). Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies. . Operational Guidance for Emergency Relief Staff and Programme Managers. Oxford, Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) Core Group: 28.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) (2007). IASC guidelines on mental health and psychosocial support in emergency settings. Geneva, Interagency Standing Committee.

International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) (2006). Early childhood development.Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction. Paris, International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO: 223-239.

Ismail, S. (2007). "Education and crises." Qatr an nada(10): 9-12.

Jacobs, K. and S. Williams (2009). Natural disaster preparation and response: issues for state housing authorities. Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.

Jimerson, S. R., S. E. Brock, et al. (2005). "An Integrated Model of School Crisis Preparedness and Intervention." School Psychology International 26(3): 275-296.

Johnes, M. (2000). "Aberfan and the Management of Trauma." Disasters 24(1): 1-17.

Jones, L. (2008). "Responding to the needs of children in crisis." International Review of Psychiatry 20(3): 291-303.

Jones, L. and A. Edgerton (2009). A report on conflict and violence affected children and youth in the departments of Huehuetenango and Quiche, Guatemala. Child Fund International and International Medical Corps: 35.

Jones, R. T., R. Frary, et al. (2001). "The psychological effects of Hurricane Andrew on ethnic minority and Caucasian children and adolescents: A case study." Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 7(1): 103-108.

Joshi, P. T. and S. M. Lewin (2004). "Disaster, terrorism: Addressing the effects of traumatic events on children and their families is critical to long-term recovery and resilience."Psychiatric Annals 34(9): 710-716.

Kamel, H. (2006). Early childhood care and education in emergency situations. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007, Strong foundations: early childhood care and education.

Karanci, A. N., B. Aksit, et al. (2005). "Impact of a community disaster awareness training program in Turkey: does it influence hazard-related cognition and preparedness behaviors?" Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 33(3): 243-258.

Kenardy, J. A., R. A. Webster, et al. (1996). "Stress Debriefing and Patterns of Recovery Following a Natural Disaster." Journal of Traumatic Stress 9(1): 37-49.

Kilic, E. Z., H. D. Ozguven, et al. (2003). "The Psychological Effects of Parental Mental Health on Children Experiencing Disaster: The Experience of Bolu Earthquake in Turkey." Family Process 42(4): 485-495.

Kinney, D. K., A. M. Miller, et al. (2008). "Autism Prevalence Following Prenatal Exposure to Hurricanes and Tropical Storms in Louisiana." Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 38(3): 481-488.

Kinsel, J. D. and M. Thomasgard (2008). "In their own words: The 9/11 disaster child care providers." Families, Systems, & Health 26(1): 44-57.

Klein, T. P., E. R. Devoe, et al. (2009). "Young children's responses to September 11th: The New York City experience." Infant Mental Health Journal 30(1): 1-22.

Knack, J. M., Z. Chen, et al. (2006). "Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Disaster Survivors." Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy 6(1): 175-189.

Knox, K. S. and A. R. Roberts (2005). "Crisis Intervention and Crisis Team Models in Schools." Children & Schools 27(2): 93-100.

Koplewicz, H. S., J. M. Vogel, et al. (2002). "Child and Parent Response to the 1993 World Trade Center Bombing." Journal of Traumatic Stress 15(1): 77.

Korol, M., B. L. Green, et al. (1999). "Children's responses to a nuclear waster disaster: PTSD symptoms and outcome prediction." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 38(4): 368-375.

Kostelny, K. (2008). Psychosocial and protection outcomes of child centered spaces: Research on young children in Northern Uganda, Christian Children's Fund.

Kostelny, K. (2008). Starting up child centered spaces in emergencies: A field manual.Richmond VA, Christian Children's Fund.

Kostelny, K. and M. Wessells (2005). "Psychosocial aid to children after the Dec 26 tsunami." Lancet 366(9503): 2066-2067.

Kreuger, L. and J. Stretch (2003). "Identifying and helping long term child and adolescent disaster victims: Model and method." Journal of Social Service Research 30(2): 93-108.

Kubicek, K., M. Ramirez, et al. (2008). "Knowledge and behaviors of parents in planning for and dealing with emergencies." Journal of Community Health: The Publication for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 33(3): 158-168.

La Greca, A. M. and W. K. Silverman (2009). "Treatment and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Disasters and Terrorism: What Is the Evidence?" Child Development Perspectives 3(1): 4-10.

La Greca, A. M., W. K. Silverman, et al. (1998). "Children's predisaster functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic stress following Hurricane Andrew." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66(6): 883-892.

Lacroix, L., C. Rousseau, et al. (2007). "Immigrant and refugee preschoolers' sandplay representations of the tsunami." Arts in Psychotherapy 34(2): 99-113.

Landers, C. (1998). Listen to me: protecting the development of young children in armed conflict. Office of Emergency Programmes Working Paper Series. New York, UNICEF: 47.

Landrigan, P. J., J. Forman, et al. (2008). "Impact of September 11 World Trade Center Disaster on Children and Pregnant Women." Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 75(2): 129-134.

Laor, N., L. Wolmer, et al. (2002). "Posttraumatic, dissociative and grief symptoms in Turkish children exposed to the 1999 earthquakes." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 190(12):824-832.

Laplante, D. P., P. R. Zelazo, et al. (2007). "Functional play at 2 years of age: Effects of prenatal maternal stress." Infancy 12(1): 69-93.

Lee, A., M. Isaac, et al. (2002). "Post-traumatic stress disorder and terrorism." Current Opinion in Psychiatry 15(6): 633-637.

Lee, D. E., G. Parker, et al. (2008). "Katrina and the Schools of Mississippi: An Examination of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness." Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk 13(2/3): 318-334.

Lengua, L. J., A. C. Long, et al. (2006). "Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children's responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks." Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 47(12): 1219-1227.

Lengua, L. J., A. C. Long, et al. (2005). "Pre-attack symptomatology and temperament as predictors of children's responses to the September 11 terrorist attacks." Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 46(6): 631-645.

Levine, C. (2004). "The Concept of Vulnerability in Disaster Research." Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 395-402.

Lewin, T. J., V. J. Carr, et al. (1998). "Recovery from post-earthquake psychological morbidity: who suffers and who recovers?" Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 32(1): 15-20.

Linke, P. (2003). "Bushfires and the effect on children." Every Child 9(1): 30-32.

Lintner, T. (2006). "Hurricanes and Tsunamis: Teaching about Natural Disasters and Civic Responsibility in Elementary Classrooms." Social Studies 97(3): 101-104.

Lloyd, E., H. Penn, et al. (2005). How effective are measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0-8? Research Evidence in Education Library. London, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London

Longhurst, R. (1995). "Nutrition and care of young children in emergencies." Food and Nutrition Bulletin 16(4).

Lonigan, C. J. and J. L. Anthony (1998). "Diagnostic efficacy of posttraumatic symptoms in children exposed to disaster." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27(3): 255.

Luthra, R., R. Abramovitz, et al. (2009). "Relationship Between Type of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Urban Children and Adolescents." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24(11): 1919-1927.

Macdonald, E. (2009). Mental health needs post-disaster: Supporting recovery of children and families. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal: 79-80.

Machel, G. (1996). Impact of armed conflict on children. Report of the expert of the Secretary-General, Ms. Graça Machel, submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 48/157, United Nations General Assembly.

Mack, S. E., D. Spotts, et al. (2006). "Teaching Emergency Preparedness to Restricted- Budget Families." Public Health Nursing 23(4): 354-360.

Madfis, J., D. Martyris, et al. (2010). "Emergency Safe Spaces in Haiti and the Solomon Islands." Disasters EARLY VIEW

Madrid, P. A. and R. Grant (2008). "Meeting mental health needs following a natural disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 39(1): 86- 92.

Magkos, F., F. Arvaniti, et al. (2004). "Identifying nutritionally vulnerable groups in case of emergencies: experience from the Athens 1999 earthquake." International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition 55(7): 527-536.

Man Cheung, C., J. Werrett, et al. (2004). "Coping with post-traumatic stress: young, middleaged and elderly comparisons." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 19(4): 333-343.

Massad, S., F. J. Nieto, et al. (2009). "Mental Health of Children in Palestinian Kindergartens: Resilience and Vulnerability." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 14(2): 89- 96.

McConnell, A. and L. Drennan (2006). "Mission Impossible? Planning and Preparing for Crisis." Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management 14(2): 59-70.

McDermott, B. and D. Finlayson (1995). 'The screen and the black box': screening 4000 children for post bushfire emotional trauma and their subsequent treatment with a guided workbook. 5th National Conference of the Australian Guidance & Counselling Association : Focus on Tolerance. Hobart.

McDermott, B. M., E. M. Lee, et al. (2005). "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents Following a Wildfire Disaster." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 50(3): 137-143.

McDermott, B. M. C. and L. J. Palmer (1999). "Post-disaster service provision following proactive identification of children with emotional distress and depression." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 33(6): 855-863.

McFarlane, A. C. (1989). "The prevention and management of the psychiatric morbidity of natural disasters: An Australian experience." Stress Medicine 5(1): 29-36.

Mercuri, A. and H. L. Angelique (2004). "Children's Responses to Natural, Technological, and Na-Tech Disasters." Community Mental Health Journal 40(2): 167-175.

Meynard, J.B., A. Nau, et al. (2008). "Health indicators in children from Meulaboh, Indonesia, following the tsunami of December 26, 2004." Military Medicine 173(9): 900-905.

Miller, L. (1999). "Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in children and families: basic principles and clinical applications." American Journal of Family Therapy 27(1): 21-34.

Mitchell, T., K. Haynes, et al. (2008). "The roles of children and youth in communicating disaster risk." Children, youth and environments 18(1): 254-279.

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Pfefferbaum, B. and C. S. North (2008). "Research with children exposed to disasters." International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 17(S2): S49-S56.

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Robertson, C. C. and J. E. King (2007). "A Teaching and Learning Methodology for Healing the Wounds of Distance, Displacement, and Loss Caused by Hurricane Katrina." Journal of Black Studies 37(4): 469-481.

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Below are presented two sample annotations from the complete annotated bibliography.

Baggerly, J. and H. A. Exum (2008). "Counseling Children After Natural Disasters: Guidance for Family Therapists." American Journal of Family Therapy 36(1): 79-93.

After natural disasters, most children exhibit typical symptoms, which can be mitigated when parents and teachers provide emotional support and facilitate adaptive coping strategies. However, some children may experience clinical symptoms, which require professional counseling. This article guides family therapists in (a) identifying children's typical and clinical symptoms after a natural disaster, (b) training parents and teachers in basic interventions, and (c) implementing developmentally appropriate clinical interventions that integrate play. A multimodal, three-phase approach of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Play Therapy, and Family PlayTherapy is described.

Luthra, R., R. Abramovitz, et al. (2009). "Relationship Between Type of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Urban Children and Adolescents." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24(11): 1919-1927.

This study examines the association between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 157 help-seeking children (aged 8-17). Structured clinical interviews are carried out, and linear and logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD and type of trauma exposure controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity. Confrontation with traumatic news, witnessing domestic violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse are each significantly associated with PTSD. Witnessing a crime, being the victim of a crime, and exposure to accidents, fire, or disaster are not associated with PTSD. These findings underscore the association between interpersonal violence and childhood PTSD.